Wednesday, December 5, 2007

Prince Fielder
Prince Semien Fielder (born May 9, 1984 in Ontario, California) is an American Major League Baseball player who currently plays first base for the Milwaukee Brewers. He was selected by the Brewers in the first round of the 2002 amateur draft out of Eau Gallie High School in Melbourne, Florida. He is the son of former Detroit Tigers First Baseman Cecil Fielder. As of 2006, he was one of six active major leaguers (along with Moises Alou, David Bell, Barry Bonds, Ken Griffey, Jr., and Daryle Ward) to hit 20 home runs in a season whose fathers had also hit 20 home runs in a MLB season.
Fielder was once the spokesperson along with his father for the McDonalds triple cheeseburger, and appeared with his father on MTV's Rock 'n Jock.
After his father gambled away some of his major league signing bonus (his father has a history of gambling and domestic problems) the two have not been on full speaking terms [1].
When his father played for Detroit, Prince would sometimes come along for batting practice. Contrary to popular belief, Fielder did not hit a home run into the upper deck of Tiger Stadium[2] at the age of 12, but he did hit a home run over the fence as a preteen. Fielder set the story straight in a 2007 interview with Fox Sports during a road trip to Detroit.
Fielder currently holds the Brewers franchise record for home runs in a season, with 46.

Milwaukee Brewers (2005-present) 2007

List of second generation MLB players

Tuesday, December 4, 2007

Hull Daily Mail
The Hull Daily Mail is the local daily newspaper for Kingston upon Hull, East Riding of Yorkshire and is published along with the free weekly, Hull Advertiser, and sports weekly SportsMail. It has been circulated in various guises since 1885.
The paper is owned by Northcliffe Media, one of the biggest regional publishers in the UK, and a subsidiary of Associated Newspapers, publisher of the Daily Mail, Mail on Sunday, the London Standard, and the Metro free daily paper. Together, they are owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust plc (DMGT), one of the UK's largest media companies with interests in national and regional newspapers, television and radio.
The Hull Daily Mail is produced every day of the week except for Sunday and has a readership of around 170,000. A sister paper, the East Riding Mail, was introduced fairly recently to focus on stories from Hull's rural surroundings.
The newspaper has won the award for Yorkshire Daily Newspaper of the Year three times, in 2003, It has also won accolades for its pioneering work in video journalism, reports available via its website, They also recently set up a sports news website,
In 2005, the paper became embroiled in a dispute with Adam Pearson, chairman of Hull City A.F.C., over news reports on local radio station KCFM [1].

Monday, December 3, 2007

Objective-C, often referred to as ObjC and sometimes as Objective C or Obj-C, is a reflective, object-oriented programming language which adds Smalltalk-style messaging to C.
Today it is used primarily on Mac OS X and GNUstep, two environments based on the OpenStep standard (although Mac OS X is OpenStep incompatible), and is the primary language used for the NeXTSTEP, OPENSTEP, and Cocoa application frameworks. Generic Objective-C programs that do not make use of these libraries can also be compiled for any system supported by gcc, which includes an Objective-C compiler.

In 1988, NeXT, the next company started by Steve Jobs after Apple, licensed Objective-C from StepStone (the owner of the Objective-C trademark) and released their own Objective-C compiler and libraries on which the NeXTstep user interface and interface builder were based. The success of the tools and quality of the resultant operating system helped NeXT become a fairly popular niche workstation provider.
After acquiring NeXT in 1996, Apple used OpenStep as the basis for its new main operating system, Mac OS X. This included Objective-C and NeXT's Objective-C based developer tool, Project Builder (later replaced by Xcode), as well as its interface design tool, Interface Builder. Most of Apple's present-day Cocoa API is based on OpenStep interface objects, and is the most significant Objective-C environment being used for active development.

Popularization through NeXT
Objective-C is a very "thin" layer on top of C. Objective-C is a strict superset of C. That is, it is possible to compile any C program with an Objective-C compiler. Objective-C derives its syntax from both C and Smalltalk. Most of the syntax (including preprocessing, expressions, function declarations, and function calls) is inherited from C, while the syntax for object-oriented features was created to enable Smalltalk-style message passing.

The added syntax is for built-in support of object-oriented programming. The Objective-C model of object-oriented programming is based on sending messages to objects, similar to the model of Smalltalk. This is unlike the Simula programming model, which is used by C++ among other programming languages. This distinction is semantically important. The basic difference is that in Objective-C, one does not call a method; one sends a message.
An object called obj whose class has a method doSomething implemented is said to respond to the message doSomething. If we wish to send a doSomething message to obj, we write
This mechanism allows messages to be sent to an object even if the object is not able to respond to them. This differs from statically typed languages such as C++ and Java in which all method calls to objects must be predefined. (See the dynamic typing section below.)

Objective-C requires the interface and implementation of a class to be in separate specially declared code blocks. By convention, the interface is put in a header file and the implementation in a code file; the header files, suffixed .h, are similar to C header files.

Objective-C Interfaces and implementations
The interface of the class is usually defined in a header file. Convention is usually to create the name of the header file based on the name of the class. So if we have the class Thing, Thing's interface goes in the file Thing.h.
The interface declaration is in this form:
Hyphens mark instance methods and plus signs mark class methods (like static member functions in C++). This is different from the meaning of a preceding – and + in UML diagrams which mean private and public method, respectively.

The interface only declares the prototypes for the methods, and not the methods themselves, which go in the implementation. The implementation is usually stored in a main file, for example, Thing.m. The implementation is written
Methods are written in a different way from C-style functions. For example, a function in both C and Objective-C follows this general form:
with int do_something(int) as the prototype.
When this is implemented as a method, this becomes:
A more canonical way of writing the above method would be like this, by naming the first argument in the selector name:
This syntax may appear to be more troublesome but it allows the naming of parameters, for example
which can be invoked thus:
Internal representations of this method vary between different implementations of Objective-C. If myColor is of the class Color, internally, instance method -changeColorWithRed:green:blue: might be labeled _i_Color_changeColorWithRed_green_blue. The i is to refer to an instance method, with the class and then method names appended, colons translated to underscores.
However, internal names of the function are rarely used directly, and generally even message-sends are converted to a call to a function defined in a run-time library rather than directly accessing the internal name. This is partially because it is rarely known at compile-time which method will actually be called, because the class of the receiver (i.e., the object being sent the message) is rarely known until runtime.

Objective-C was extended at NeXT to introduce the concept of multiple inheritance of specification, but not implementation, through the introduction of protocols. This is a pattern achievable either as an abstract multiply inherited base class in C++, or else, more popularly, adopted (e.g., in Java or C#) as an "interface". Objective-C makes use of both ad-hoc protocols, called informal protocols, and compiler enforced protocols called formal protocols.
An informal protocol is a list of methods that a class can implement. It is specified in the documentation, since it has no presence in the language. Informal protocols often include optional methods, where implementing the method can change the behavior of a class. For example, a text field class might have a delegate that should implement an informal protocol with an optional autocomplete method. The text field discovers whether the delegate implements that method (via reflection), and, if so, calls it to support autocomplete.
A formal protocol is similar to an interface in Java or C#. It is a list of methods that any class can declare itself to implement. The compiler will emit an error if the class does not implement every method of its declared protocols. The Objective-C concept of protocols is different from the Java or C# concept of interfaces in that a class may implement a protocol without being declared to implement that protocol. The difference is not detectable from outside code. Formal protocols cannot provide any implementations, they simply assure callers that classes that conform to the protocol will provide implementations. In the NeXT/Apple library, protocols are frequently used by the Distributed Objects system to represent the capabilities of an object executing on a remote system.
The syntax
denotes that there is the abstract idea of locking that is useful and when stated in a class definition
denotes that instances of SomeClass will provide an implementation for the two instance methods using whatever means they want. This abstract specification is particularly useful to describe the desired behaviors of plug-ins for example, without constraining at all what the implementation hierarchy should be.

Objective-C, like Smalltalk, can use dynamic typing; we can send an object a message not specified in its interface. This can allow for increased flexibility — in Objective-C an object can "capture" this message, and depending on the object, can send the message off again to a different object (who can respond to the message correctly and appropriately, or likewise send the message on again). This behavior is known as message forwarding or delegation (see below). Alternatively, an error handler can be used instead, in case the message cannot be forwarded. If the object does not forward the message, handle the error, or respond to it, a runtime error occurs.
Static typing information may also optionally be added to variables. This information is then checked at compile time. In the following statements, increasingly specific type information is provided. The statements are equivalent at runtime, but the additional information allows the compiler to warn the programmer if the passed argument does not match the type specified. In the first statement, the object must conform to the aProtocol protocol, and in the second, it must be a member of the NSNumber class.
Dynamic typing can be a powerful feature. When implementing container classes using statically-typed languages without generics like pre-1.5 Java, the programmer is forced to write a container class for a generic type of object, and then cast back and forth between the abstract generic type and the real type. Casting however breaks the discipline of static typing – if you put in an Integer and read out a String, you get an error. One way of alleviating the problem is to resort to generic programming, but then container classes must be homogeneous in type. This need not be the case with dynamic typing.

Dynamic typing
Since Objective-C permits the sending of a message to an object that might not respond to it, the object has a number of things it can do with the message. One of these things could be to forward the message on to an object that can respond to it. Forwarding can be used to implement certain design patterns, such as the Observer pattern or the Proxy pattern very simply.
The Objective-C runtime specifies a pair of methods in Object
and as such an object wishing to implement forwarding needs only to override the forwarding method to define the forwarding behaviour. The action methods performv:: need not be overridden as this method merely performs the method based on the selector and arguments.

forwarding methods:
action methods: Forwarding
Here is an example of a program that demonstrates the basics of forwarding.

If we were to compile the program, the compiler would report that
The compiler is reporting the point that was made earlier, Forwarder does not respond to hello messages. In certain circumstances, such a warning can help us find errors, but in this circumstance, we can safely ignore this warning, since we have implemented forwarding. If we were to run the program

Cox's main concern was the maintainability of large code bases. Experience from the structured programming world had shown that one of the main ways to improve code was to break it down into smaller pieces. Objective-C added the concept of Categories to help with this process.
A category collects method implementations into separate files. The programmer can place groups of related methods into a category to make them more readable. For instance, one could create a "SpellChecking" category "on" the String object, collecting all of the methods related to spell checking into a single place.
Furthermore, the methods within a category are added to a class at runtime. Thus, categories permit the programmer to add methods to an existing class without the need to recompile that class or even have access to its source code. For example, if the system you are supplied with does not contain a spell checker in its String implementation, you can add it without modifying the String source code.
Methods within categories become indistinguishable from the methods in a class when the program is run. A category has full access to all of the instance variables within the class, including private variables.
Categories provide an elegant solution to the fragile base class problem for methods.
If you declare a method in a category with the same method signature as an existing method in a class, the category's method is adopted. Thus categories can not only add methods to a class, but also replace existing methods. This feature can be used to fix bugs in other classes by rewriting their methods, or to cause a global change to a class' behavior within a program. If two categories have methods with the same method signature, it is undefined which category's method is adopted.
Other languages have attempted to add this feature in a variety of ways. TOM took the Objective-C system a step further and allowed for the addition of variables as well. Other languages have instead used prototype oriented solutions, the most notable being Self.

This example builds up an Integer class, by defining first a basic class with only accessor methods implemented, and adding two categories, Arithmetic and Display that extend the basic class. Whilst categories can access the base class' private data members, it is often good practice to access these private data members through the accessor methods, which helps keep categories more independent from the base class. This is one typical usage of categories—the other is to use categories to add or replace certain methods in the base class (however it is not regarded as good practice to use categories for subclass overriding).

Example usage of categories
Compilation is performed, for example, by
One can experiment by omitting the #import "Arithmetic.h" and [num1 add:num2] lines and omit Arithmetic.m in compilation. The program will still run. This means that it is possible to "mix-and-match" added categories if necessary – if one does not need to have some capability provided in a category, one can simply not compile it in.

Objective-C permits a class to wholly replace another class within a program. The replacing class is said to "pose as" the target class. All messages sent to the target class are then instead received by the posing class. There are several restrictions on which classes can pose:
Posing, similarly to categories, allows globally augmenting existing classes. Posing permits two features absent from categories:
For example,
This intercepts every invocation of setMainMenu to NSApplication.

A class may only pose as one of its direct or indirect superclasses
The posing class must not define any new instance variables that are absent from the target class (though it may define or override methods).
No messages must have been sent to the target class prior to the posing.
A posing class can call overridden methods through super, thus incorporating the implementation of the target class.
A posing class can override methods defined in categories. Posing
In the C language, the #include pre-compile directive allows for the insertion of entire files before any compilation actually begins. Objective-C adds the #import directive, which does the same thing, except that it knows not to insert a file that has already been inserted.
For example, if file A includes files X and Y, but X and Y each include the file Q, then Q will be inserted twice into the resultant file, causing "duplicate definition" compile errors. But if file Q is included using the #import directive, only the first inclusion of Q will occur—all others will be ignored.
A few compilers, including GCC, support #import for C programs too; its use is discouraged on the basis that the user of the header file has to distinguish headers that should be included only once, from headers designed to be used multiple times. It is argued that this burden should be placed on the implementor; to this end, the implementor may place the directive #pragma once in the header file, or use the traditional include guard technique:
If a header file uses guards or #pragma once, it makes no difference whether it is #included or #imported. The same objection to #import actually applies to Objective-C as well, and many Objective-C programs will also adopt guards in their headers.

Objective-C in fact included a laundry-list of features that are still being added to other languages, and some that are unique to it. These led from Cox's (and later, NeXT's) realization that there is considerably more to programming than the language. The system has to be usable and flexible as a whole in order to work in a real-world setting.

Delegating methods to other objects at run-time is trivial. Simply add a category that changes the "second chance" method to forward the invocation to the delegate.
Remote invocation is trivial. Simply add a category that changes the "second chance" method to serialize the invocation and forward it off.
Swizzling of the isa pointer allows for classes to change at runtime. Typically used for debugging where freed objects are swizzled into zombie objects, whose only purpose is to report an error when someone calls them. Swizzling was also used in EOF to create database faults. Swizzling is used today by Apple's Foundation Framework to implement Key-Value Observing.
Archiving. An object can be archived into a stream, such as a file, and can be read and restored on demand. Other features
Objective-C++ is a front-end to the GNU Compiler Collection that can compile source files that use a combination of C++ and Objective-C syntax. Objective-C++ adds to C++ the extensions Objective-C adds to C. As nothing is done to unify the semantics behind the various language features, certain restrictions apply:

A C++ class cannot derive from an Objective-C class and vice versa.
C++ namespaces cannot be declared inside an Objective-C declaration.
Objective-C classes cannot have instance variables of C++ classes that do not have a default constructor, or that have one or more virtual methods, but pointers to C++ objects can be used as instance variables without restriction (allocate them with new in the -init method).
C++ "by value" semantics cannot be applied to Objective-C objects, which are only accessible through pointers.
An Objective-C declaration cannot be within a C++ template declaration and vice versa. Objective-C types, (e.g., Classname *) can be used as C++ template parameters, however.
Objective-C and C++ exception handling is distinct; the handlers of each cannot handle exceptions of the other type.
Care must be taken since the destructor calling conventions of Objective-C and C++'s exception run-time models do not match (i.e., a C++ destructor will not be called when an Objective-C exception exits the C++ object's scope). Objective-C++
Objective-C today is often used in tandem with a fixed library of standard objects (often known as a "kit" or "framework"), such as Cocoa or GNUstep. These libraries often come with the operating system: the GNUstep libraries often come with Linux distributions and Cocoa comes with Mac OS X. The programmer is not forced to inherit functionality from the existing base class (NSObject). Objective-C allows for the declaration of new root classes that do not inherit any existing functionality. Originally, Objective-C based programming environments typically offered an Object class as the base class from which almost all other classes inherited. With the introduction of OpenStep, NeXT created a new base class named NSObject that offered additional features over Object (an emphasis on using object references and reference counting instead of raw pointers, for example). Almost all classes in Cocoa inherit from NSObject.
Not only did the renaming serve to differentiate the new default behavior of classes within the OpenStep API, but it allowed code that used Object — the original base class used on NeXTSTEP (and, more or less, other Objective-C class libraries) — to co-exist in the same runtime with code that used NSObject (with some limitations). As well, the introduction of the two letter prefix became a sort of simplistic form of namespaces, which Objective-C lacks. Using a prefix to create an informal packaging identifier became an informal coding standard in the Objective-C community, and continues to this day.

Objective-C 2.0
Objective-C 2.0 allows for garbage collection, but it is an opt-in system. One may use garbage collection in a backwards compatible way, such that code written for previous versions will continue to work.

Garbage collection
Whereas instance variables previously required the creation of methods to get and set (getters and setters) those variables, Objective-C 2.0 introduces the property syntax:
Once added to the interface, properties can be accessed using dot notation (example given an instance aPerson of the above Person class):
The compiler translates property dot notation into accessor method calls. The above statement is equivalent to:

Instead of using an Enumerator object to iterate through a collection, Objective-C 2.0 offers the foreach syntax (given an array thePeople of objects of the above defined Person):

Fast iteration
Besides the GCC/NeXT/Apple Computer implementation, which added several extensions to the original Stepstone implementation, there exists another free open-source Objective-C implementation, which implements a slightly different set of extensions: The Portable Object Compiler [5] implements, among other things, also Smalltalk-like blocks for Objective-C.

Portable Object Compiler
Objective-C implementations use a thin runtime written in C that adds little to the size of the application. In contrast, most OO systems at the time that it was created (and Java even today) used large VM runtimes that took over the entire system. Programs written in Objective-C tend to be not much larger than the size of their code and that of the libraries (which generally do not need to be included in the software distribution), in contrast to Smalltalk systems where a large amount of memory was used just to open a window.
Likewise, the language can be implemented on top of existing C compilers (in GCC, first as a preprocessor, then as a module) rather than as a new compiler. This allows Objective-C to leverage the huge existing collection of C code, libraries, tools, and mindshare. Existing C libraries — even in object code libraries — can be wrapped in Objective-C wrappers to provide an OO-style interface. All of these practical changes lowered the barrier to entry, likely the biggest problem for the widespread acceptance of Smalltalk in the 1980s.
The first versions of Objective-C did not support garbage collection. At the time this decision was a matter of some debate, and many people considered long "dead times" (when Smalltalk did collection) to render the entire system unusable. Although some 3rd party implementations have added this feature (most notably GNUstep), Apple implemented it as of Mac OS X v10.5. But it is unavailable to applications targeting older versions of the Mac OS
Another common criticism is that Objective-C does not have language support for namespaces. Instead programmers are forced to add prefixes to their class names, which can cause collisions. As of 2007, all Mac OS X classes and functions in the Cocoa programming environment are prefixed with "NS" (as in NSObject or NSButton) to clearly identify them as belonging to the Mac OS X core; the "NS" derives from the names of the classes as defined during the development of NeXTSTEP.
Since Objective-C is a strict superset of C, it does not treat C primitive types as first-class objects either.
Unlike C++, Objective-C does not support operator overloading. Also unlike C++, Objective-C allows an object only to directly inherit from one class (forbidding multiple inheritance). As Java was influenced by the design of Objective-C, the decision to use single inheritance was carried into Java. Categories and protocols may be used as alternative functionality to multiple inheritance; Java however lacks categories.

Analysis of the language
The design and implementation of C++ and Objective-C represent different approaches to extending C.
In addition to C's style of procedural programming, C++ directly supports object-oriented programming, generic programming, and metaprogramming. C++ also comes with a large standard library which includes several container classes. Objective-C, on the other hand, adds only object-oriented features to C. Objective-C in its purest fashion does not contain the same number of standard library features, but in most places where Objective-C is used, it is used with an OpenStep-like library such as OPENSTEP, Cocoa, or GNUstep which provide similar functionality to some of C++'s standard library.
One notable difference is that Objective-C provides runtime support for some reflective features, whereas C++ adds only a small amount of runtime support to C. In Objective-C, an object can be queried about its own properties, for example whether it will respond to a certain message. In C++ this is not possible without the use of external libraries; however, it is possible to query whether two objects are of the same type (including built-in types) and whether an object is an instance of a given class (or superclass).
The use of reflection is part of the wider distinction between dynamic (run-time) features versus static (compile-time) features of a language. Although Objective-C and C++ each employ a mix of both features, Objective-C is decidedly geared toward run-time decisions while C++ is geared toward compile-time decisions. The tension between dynamic and static programming involves many of the classic trade-offs in computer science.

See also

Sunday, December 2, 2007

This article is about the comic book and TV series. For the mobster, see Lucky Luciano.
Lucky Luke is a Franco-Belgian comics series created by Morris, and over period written by René Goscinny. Set in the American Old West, it stars the titular character, Lucky Luke, the cowboy known to shoot faster than his shadow.
Along with The Adventures of Tintin and Asterix, Lucky Luke is one of the most popular and best-selling comic-book series in continental Europe, but unlike Tintin and Astérix, despite its popularity in Canada, only a handful of the series' adventures have been translated into English.

Publication history
Luke, drawing a gun faster than his shadow, fights crime and injustice, most often in the form of the bumbling Dalton brothers, Joe, William, Jack and Averell (each one being taller and dumber than the previous one). He rides Jolly Jumper, "the smartest horse in the world". He is often seen with Rantanplan, "the stupidest dog in the universe", whose name is a reference to Rin Tin Tin. A cigarette was constantly on Lucky Luke's lips in the early stories, but in 1983, in response to the growing anti-smoking campaign, Morris replaced the cigarette with a piece of straw, which earned him recognition from the World Health Organization.
In the albums, Luke meets many factual Western figures like Calamity Jane, Billy the Kid, Judge Roy Bean and Jesse James's gang, and takes part in historical endeavors such as guarding of Wells Fargo stagecoaches, the Pony Express, the building of the first transcontinental telegraph, and the Rush into the Unassigned Lands of Oklahoma.
At the end of each story, except the earliest, Lucky Luke rides off alone into the sunset, singing (in English) "I'm a poor lonesome cowboy, and a long way from home...".

Plot summary


1. La Mine d'or de Dick Digger, Dupuis, 1949 (Dick Digger's Gold Mine)
2. Rodéo, Dupuis, 1949
3. Arizona, Dupuis, 1951
4. Sous le ciel de l'Ouest, Dupuis, 1952 (Under the Western Sky)
5. Lucky Luke contre Pat Poker, Dupuis, 1953 (Lucky Luke versus Pat Poker)
6. Hors-la-loi, Dupuis, 1954 (Outlaw)
7. L'Élixir du Dr Doxey, Dupuis, 1955 (Dr Doxey's Elixir)
8. Lucky Luke contre Phil Defer, Dupuis, 1956 (Lucky Luke versus Phil Defer - the name Phil Defer a French play on Fil de Fer, Iron Wire)
10. Alerte aux Pieds Bleus, Dupuis, 1958 (Beware of the Bluefoots) By Morris & Goscinny

47. Le Magot des Dalton, Dargaud, 1980, by Vicq (The Daltons' Loot)
48. Le Bandit manchot, Dargaud, 1981, by Bob de Groot (The One-Armed Bandit)
49. Sarah Bernhardt, Dargaud, 1982, by Jean Léturgie and Xavier Fauche
52. Fingers, Dargaud, 1983, by Lo Hartog Van Banda
53. Le Daily Star, Dargaud, 1983, by Jean Léturgie and Xavier Fauche (The Daily Star)
54. La Fiancée de Luky Luke, Dargaud, 1985, by Guy Vidal (Lucky Luke's Fiancee)
56. Le Ranch maudit, Dargaud, 1986, by Jean Léturgie, Xavier Fauche and Claude Guylouis (The Cursed Ranch)
57. Nitroglycérine, Dargaud, 1987, by Lo Hartog Van Banda
58. L'Alibi, Dargaud, 1987, by Claude Guylouis (The Alibi)
59. Le Pony Express, Dargaud, 1988], by Jean Léturgie and Xavier Fauche (The Pony Express)
60. L'Amnésie des Dalton, Lucky Productions, 1991, by Jean Léturgie and Xavier Fauche (The Daltons' Amnesia)
61. Chasse aux fantômes, Lucky Productions, 1992, by Lo Hartog Van Banda (Ghosthunt)
62. Les Dalton à la noce, Lucky Productions, 1993, by Jean Léturgie and Xavier Fauche (The Daltons at a Wedding)
63. Le Pont sur le Mississippi, Lucky Productions, 1994, by Jean Léturgie and Xavier Fauche (Bridge Over The Mississippi)
64. Belle Star, Lucky Productions, 1995, by Xavier Fauche
65. Le Klondike, Lucky Productions, 1996, by Yann and Jean Léturgie (The Klondike)
66. O.K. Corral, Lucky Productions, 1997, by Eric Adam and Xavier Fauche
67. Marcel Dalton, Lucky Productions, 1998, by Bob de Groot
68. Le Prophète, Lucky Comics, 2000, by Patrick Nordmann (The Prophet)
69. L'Artiste peintre, Lucky Comics, 2001, by Bob de Groot (The Painter)
70. La Légende de l'Ouest, Lucky Comics, 2002, by Patrick Nordmann (The Legend Of The West) Various writers

71. La Belle Province, Lucky Comics, 2004 (The Beautiful Country)
72. La Corde au cou, Lucky Comics, 2006 (Rope On The Neck) Lucky Luke By Achdé & Gerra

The Stagecoach, Knight Books (UK), 1976
Apache Canyon, Knight Books (UK), 1977
The Stage Coach, Dargaud USA, 1980s; Fantasy Flight (US) 1990s
The Greenhorn, Dargaud USA, 1980s
Dalton City, Dargaud USA, 1980s
Jesse James, Dargaud USA, 1980s; Fantasy Flight (US) 1990s
Western Circus, Dargaud USA, 1980s
Ma Dalton, Dargaud USA, 1980s
The Dalton Brothers' Analyst, also Curing the Daltons, Dargaud Canada, 1982
The Dalton Brothers Memory Game, Ravette books (UK), 1991
Calamity Jane, Glo'worm (UK), 1998
Dalton City, Glo'worm (UK), 1998
Ma Dalton, Glo'worm (UK), 1999
Jesse James, Glo'worm (UK), 1998
The Tenderfoot, Glo'worm (UK), 1999
Western Circus, Glo'worm (UK), 2000
The Dashing White Cowboy, Glo'worm (UK), 2000
1. Billy the Kid, Cinebook Ltd, 2006, ISBN 1905460112
2. Ghost Town, Cinebook Ltd, 2006, ISBN 1905460120
3. Dalton City, Cinebook Ltd, 2006, ISBN 1905460139
4. Jesse James, Cinebook Ltd, 2006, ISBN 1905460147
5. In the Shadow of the Derricks, Cinebook Ltd, 2007, ISBN 1905460171
6. Ma Dalton, Cinebook Ltd, 2007, ISBN 9781905460182
7. Barbed Wire on the Prairie, Cinebook Ltd, 2007, ISBN 9781905460243
8. Calamity Jane, Cinebook Ltd, 2007, ISBN 9781905460250
9. The Wagon Train, Cinebook Ltd, 2008, announced
10. Tortillas for the Daltons, Cinebook Ltd, 2008, announced
11. Western Circus, Cinebook Ltd, 2008, announced
12. The Rivals of Painful Gulch, Cinebook Ltd, 2008, announced English translations

Lucky Luke in other media
Three theatrical animated films were created. In 1990, Disney released one of them, The Ballad of the Daltons, on VHS. In addition to the theatrical animated movies, there was also an animated Lucky Luke television series: In 1983, Hanna-Barbera studios and Morris released 26 episodes, and in 1991, 26 more episodes were released. In 2001, Xilam produced a new series of 52 episodes known as Les Nouvelles aventures de Lucky Luke (Lucky Luke's new adventures). It is now available on 8 DVDs with French and English audio tracks. This series also featured colonel Custer who is an Indian-hater and a dwarf.

In the early 1990s, two films and a television series starring Terence Hill as Lucky Luke were produced. In 2004 a film titled Les Dalton featured Til Schweiger as Lucky Luke.
Yves Marmion and UGC, the producers of Les Dalton, are currently developing a 20M€ stand-alone Lucky Luke feature, starring Jean Dujardin as the gunslinger, according to

Lucky Luke Video games

Roy Bean
Sarah Bernhardt
Billy the Kid
Black Bart
Buffalo Bill
Ike Clanton
Old Man Clanton
Dalton Gang
Edwin Drake
James B. Eads
Wyatt Earp, Virgil Earp, Morgan Earp
Horace Greeley
Hatfield & McCoy
Rutherford B. Hayes
Doc Holliday
Frank James
Jesse James
Calamity Jane
Abraham Lincoln
George Maldon
Joshua Norton
Isaac C. Parker
Frederic Remington
Mattie Silks
Soapy Smith
Belle Starr
Mark Twain
Adolphe & Arthur Caille

Saturday, December 1, 2007

Erhard Seminars Training, Inc., an organization founded by Werner H. Erhard, presented to the general public a wildly popular and sometimes controversial weekend workshop known as 'The est Training'. (The word 'est' is an acronym for 'erhard seminars training', and is also Latin for 'what is'.) The goal of 'the Training' was to allow participants to achieve a sense of personal transformation, a concept that became important during the socially turbulent and war-weary early 1970's, the era of Watergate and Vietnam. The est Training was delivered, unchanged save for minor modifications to the program, for over 13 years, from late-1971 to late-1984.[1]
The first est Training took place at the Jack Tar Hotel in San Francisco, California in October 1971. From there, est grew rapidly, expanding out of California, going nationwide, then worldwide, as word of mouth about the new program spread. In December 1984 the est Training was formally retired by the company, to be replaced by a newly-developed workshop called 'The Forum', which began to be offered in January 1985. By this time, over 750,000 people around the world had done 'the Training', and many others had participated in any of the other public seminars and courses offered by est. The est Training introduced several new concepts to the American public, most notably the concept of transformation and taking responsibility for one's life.
'est, Inc.' evolved into 'est, an Educational Corporation', and eventually into 'Werner Erhard & Associates'. WE&A purchased the assets of est in 1981.
The technology of the est Training was significantly influenced by that of Unity Church through Werner Erhard's earlier association with Alexander Everett and his Mind Dynamics program. Werner Erhard had been a Mind Dynamics trainer for Alexander Everett before he founded Erhard Seminars Training. Everett credited Unity Church with having a major impact upon the formation and technology of Mind Dynamics. This connection between the est Training and Unity Church is particularly evident in the theory that one's beliefs, commitments and perceptions create one's reality (a major aspect of the est concept of "responsibility") and the use of affirmations or "declarations" (as est called that which Unity terms "affirmations"). Formulation of the est Training was significantly influenced as well by the American author, philosopher and Zen Buddhist Alan Watts.


Valerie Harper
Yoko Ono
Diana Ross Staff, participants and other individuals
See also the list of associated organizations.

The Hunger Project 1977 - Present Erhard Seminars Training Related organizations

Related publications


William Warren Bartley (1978). Werner Erhard The Transformation of a Man: The Founding of est. New York, New York, USA: Clarkson N. Potter, Inc.. ISBN 0-517-53502-5.  Other

Mark Brewerk. "We're Gonna Tear You Down and Put You Back Together", Psychology Today, August 1975
L. L. Glass, M. A. Kirsch and F. N. Parris. "Psychiatric disturbances associated with Erhard Seminars Training", American Journal of Psychiatry. 1977; 134(3): 245-7.
Peter Marin. "The New Narcissism", Harper's, October 1975, 251:45-56.
Perry Pascarella. "Create Breakthroughs in Performance by Changing the Conversation," by Perry Pascarella. Industry Week, Vol. 233, No. 6 (June 15), 1987.
Eliezer Sobel. "This Is It: est, Twenty Years Later" (QUEST Magazine, Summer 1998)[2]

Friday, November 30, 2007

Pakistan International Airlines Flight PK 705 was a Boeing 720 – 040 B that crashed while descending to land on Runway 34 at Cairo International Airport on May 20, 1965 resulting in 119 fatalities.

Controlled flight into terrain - Level ground

"The aircraft did not maintain the adequate height for the circuit and continued to descend until it contacted the ground. The reason for that abnormal continuation of descent is unknown."
The aircraft crashed during approach. The plane descended during the approach at triple the normal rate. The aircraft exceeded the recommended descent rate during the final stages of landing. Landing Gear was down and locked, however flaps and slats had not been deployed, and wing was in level flight/cruise configuration.

Probable cause

ICAO Circular 88-AN/74 (113-117)
Accident Description: Crashed during approach, excessive descent. Sources

Mr. Jalal Al-Karimi (Dhahran Station Manager – Pakistan International Airlines)
Mr. M Salahuddin Siddiqi (Press Officer – PIA)
Mr. Amanullah Khandwalla (Aerotravels)
Mr. Shaukat Mecklai (Universal Express)
Mr. Arif Raza (son of the owner of Hostelleirie de France)
Mr. Zahoor (Globe) PIA Flight 705PIA Flight 705 Survivors
PIA personnel
The twenty two journalists on board who were killed in the disaster included:

Captain Ali Akhtar Khan (Flight Commander)
Captain Jauhar (Co-pilot)
Khalid Zia Lodhi (Chief Navigation Officer)
Jimmy Mirza (Commercial & Marketing Director – PIA)
Momi Gul Durrani
Mr. Abdul Aziz
Mr. Abdul
Mr. Abdul Hamid
Mr. Abdul Hannan
Mr. Abdul Karim
Mr. Abdul Kashim
Mr. Abdul Qadir
Mr. Abdul Rozak
Master Abdul Sattar (Child)
Mst. Fatima Bibi (Child)
Mrs. Hawjaib Hyder
Miss Hawjaib Yasmin (Infant)
Mr. Abdul Sohid
Mr. Abdus Samad
Mr. Abdul Waris
Mr. Abdul Miah
Mr. A I Sheikh
Mr. Akhtar Javed Alavi
Mr. Ali Wasir
Mr. A S Niazi
Mr. Aziz Malik
Mr. Bashir Ahmed Lakhani
Mrs. Banoo Shaukat Mecklai
Ms. Cindy Salandha
Mr. Dennis E Lobo
Mr. Donald Love
Mr. Dost Mohammad
Miss Elizabeth Clare Howard
Mr. Lewis Page Howard
Mrs. Marian Teeters Howard
Ms. Dr. Eva Vodikova
Mr. Feroz Khan
Mrs. F Chowdhry
Mr. Golam Jilani Joarder
Mrs. Gulzar Begum
Mr. Gerry Roasrio
Wing Commander M Shamim Khan
Mr. Hafiz Mohammad
Mr. Hussain El Mani
Mr. Hussein Aly Chehata
Mrs. Hussein Aly Chehata
Miss Hutoki Panthakey
Mr. I A Butt
Mr. Intaj Ali
Mr. Irfan Ali
Mr. Ishaq Ibrahim El-Massoui
Mrs. Jana Hai
Mr. Jaston Layyoub
Mr. Kalay Mia
Mr. Karl
Mr. L A Tahir
Mr. Madjid Al-Makky
Mr. M A Rashid
Mr. Mahfoozul Haq Bhuiyan
Miss Mahmooda Naimatullah Baig
Mr. Malik Abdul Hussain
Dr. Malick Asdar Ali
Mr. Mansoor Laljee
Mr. Mohammed Afzal Johri
Mr. Mohamed El-Hasan
Mr. Mohammad Masood Khan
Mr. Mohammad Bajjawal
Mr. Mohammad
Mr. Mohammad Siddique
Mr. Mohammad Shafiq
Mrs. Danna Danha
Mr. Mumtaz Mian
Mr. G H Terry
Mr. M E Terry
Mr. M Ismail
Mr. Zulfiqar Khan
Mr. Monuhur Mia
Mr. Mostafauddin
Mr. M Yasefa
Miss Naseema Sarwar
Mr. Osman Ahmed Khalfalla
Miss Razia Bibi
Mr. Rolf Evensen
Mr. S A Tasdiq
Mr. S B Agha
Mrs. Shamima Amin
Mr. Sirajuddin
Mr. S M Laekawall
Mr. Shofiullah
Mrs. Syeda Saleema Begum
Mr. Syed Shams Yousseff
Mr. Toyeb Ali
Mr. Victor
Mr. Chang Hsuesh-Li
Mr. Li Yu-Feng
Mr. Hsu Fu-Ken
Mr. Huang Kang
Mr. Wu Fu-Peng
Mr. Yang Zong-Hai
Mr. Yu May-Hang
Major General Mian Hayauddin (Chairman – National Press Trust)
Mr. A K Qureishi (Administrator – Associated Press of Pakistan)
Mr. Fariduddin Ahmad (Pakistan Observer)
Mr. Akhtaruzzaman (Paigham)
Mr. Aleemullah (Leader)
Mr. Irfan Chughtai (Chief Reporter Nawa-i-Waqt)
Mr. T D D'sylva (Pakistan Times)
Mr. Sibte Farooq Faridi (Morning News)
Mr. S M Hannan (Morning News)
Mr. Hamid Hashmi (Daily Imroze)
Mr. Muzammil Huq (Sainik Pakistan)
Mr. Abul Saleh Islahi (Editor Daily Mashriq)
Mr. M B Khalid (Business Recorder)
Mr. Yaqub Khan (Aero News)
Mr. Nasir Mahmood (Daily Jang)
Mr. Jaffar Mansoor (Hurriyat)
Mr. S M Mobin (Unity)
Mr. Shah Mumtaz (PPA)
Mr. Ahmadur Rehman (Ittefaq)
Mr. Saghiruddin (Dawn)
Mr. Yasin Tareen (Business Post)
Mr. Mumtaz Tariq (Flyer) Victims

Type: Boeing 720 – 040 B
Operator: Pakistan International Airlines – PIA
Registration: AP – AMH
C/n / msn: 18379/321
Manufactured: 1962
Engines: 4 x Pratt & Whitney JT3D-3B
First flight: 1962
Delivery date: October 19, 1962

Thursday, November 29, 2007

Maximum snowfall or ice accretion The Blizzard of 2006 was a nor'easter that began on the evening of February 11, 2006. It dumped heavy snow across the Northeast United States from Virginia to Maine through the early evening of February 12 and ended in Atlantic Canada on February 13. The major northeast cities from Baltimore to Boston received at least a foot of snow, with an all-time largest amount of 26.9 inches (68.3 cm) in New York City, the most since at least 1869, the start of record keeping.

North American blizzard of 2006 Impact
For the most part, Connecticut managed to avoid major problems, despite the enormous snowfall amounts. Hartford received a total of 21.9 inches (55 cm) of snow- the second largest snowfall since 1906. A total of 18 inches (46 cm) fell in the small Sandy Hook village. West Hartford totaled 27 inches (69 cm) and Fairfield saw 27.8 inches (70.6 cm) of snow. Despite the large amounts of snow, there were only isolated individual power outages.

New Castle County and Wilmington felt the brunt of this storm with 14-15 inches (35-38 cm) of snow. Kent and Sussex counties to the south mixed with rain for a while, and saw significantly less snow accumulations, mostly in the 6 inch (15 cm) range.

The city of Washington, D.C. missed the worst of the storm. The city received about 9 inches (22 cm) of snow, far less than in the suburbs. Approximately 3,000 people lost electricity in the District of Columbia. However, Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (just across the Potomac River) was closed.

District of Columbia
The heaviest snow in Maryland fell from the northern suburbs of Washington, D.C., to the Baltimore area. These areas overwhelmingly saw over a foot of snow. Snowfall rates of 2-3 inches (5-8 cm) per hour were common, and thundersnow occurred. Snowfall amounts of up to 21 inches (53 cm) were reported in Columbia, 13.1 inches (33.3 cm) in Baltimore, 17 inches (43 cm) in Catonsville, and a foot (30.5 cm) in Potomac. This was the area's heaviest snow in three years. Lesser amounts occurred in western and southern parts of the state.
Maryland was hardest hit by power outages. In the Baltimore area, more than 62,000 people lost electricity, plus another 16,000 in Montgomery County and 37,000 in Prince George's County.

The most serious coastal problems were in Massachusetts. The heaviest snow was in the central part of the state, where snow amounts of up to 20 inches (50 cm) were reported. Coastal areas, particularly around Nantucket saw lesser amounts (approximately 12") as it was mixed with sleet at times, but winds of up to 60 mph (95 km/h) whipped up the ocean with storm surges of 2 to 3 feet (60 to 90 cm) and led to some coastal flooding, plus offshore waves of up to 25 feet (8 m). Logan International Airport in Boston and flights into and out of Barnstable municipal airport in Hyannis on Cape Cod saw over 90% of their flights cancelled at the peak of the storm.
There were no power outages despite the conditions.

The impact of the blizzard in northern New Jersey was strong enough to stop the New Jersey Transit bus service between 7:30 a.m. and 4:00 p.m., although trains continued to run (with some delays). Many roads remained closed. Businesses were closed for most of the day. 16,000 people were without power in the state. Northeastern New Jersey saw the brunt of the storm; 21" (53.3 cm) of snow fell at Newark Airport, with higher amounts reported around North Central NJ due to heavy banding through the night.nmi

New Jersey
The Greater New York City Area received the brunt of the February Blizzard of 2006. All three of the airports in the New York City area (LaGuardia Airport, John F. Kennedy International Airport and Newark Liberty International Airport) were closed during the record blizzard, for the first time since the September 11, 2001 attacks. Like the Blizzard of 1996, this winter storm does not meet the criteria to be called a blizzard, however. The winds were not strong enough, and visibility was not poor enough. Thundersnow, which is an extremely rare occurrence, especially in New York, happened for about a 4 hour period in parts of Bronx, Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, Rockland and Westchester during the height of the storm early Sunday morning.
Central Park received 26.9 inches (68.3 cm) of snow, the largest amount for a single storm since records began, breaking the record of 26.4 inches (67.1 cm) that fell on December 26, 1947. By comparison, the blizzards of 1996 and 2003 dropped 20.2 and 19.8 inches (51.3 and 50.3 cm) in Central Park respectively. The smallest amounts of snowfall were recorded in the beginning of Nassau County some towns are Oceanside, Lynbrook, Rockville Centre and Island Park. The snow removal cost in New York City alone is estimated at about $27 million.

New York
Cars left overnight in Manhattan street parking were generally immobile by morning.
North American blizzard of 2006 New York City Hall as the snow began to fall on Saturday (February 11, 2006).
Prospect Heights, Brooklyn on February 12.
A loader clears snow in New York City during a lull in the snowfall on Sunday, February 12.
Near Whiteout Conditions in Yonkers, New York.
Riverside Drive, New York City.

New York photo gallery
Snowfall totals were measured at 12 inches (30 cm) at Philadelphia International Airport, but 35 miles (56 km) to the west in West Caln Township there were 21 inches (53 cm). Philadelphia International Airport remained open throughout the storm, although about 50% of flights were cancelled. There were also power outages in the Philadelphia area, with about 10,000 customers losing power. But in contrast, in Western Pennsylvania most got 1" (2.5 cm) or less of snow.

The Governor of Rhode Island, Donald Carcieri, declared a statewide state of emergency due to the blizzard conditions.

Rhode Island
According to Dominion Power, over 64,000 people in Northern Virginia lost power in the storm, primarily in the suburban areas adjacent to Washington, D.C. Many locations in the extreme Northeastern portion of the state recorded 10-15" (25-38 cm) of snow, with Falls Church and Fairfax coming in at 13.5" (34.3 cm) and 14.0" (35.6 cm) respectively. Fairfax County and eastern Loudoun County were generally the start of the 12+" (30+ cm) accumulations, which spread north towards Massachusetts.

While the snowfall amounts diminished somewhat (to about 6 to 12 inches or 15 to 30 cm) by the time the storm tracked east into Atlantic Canada, the winds increased substantially. The worst of the storm was felt along the Atlantic coast, particularly in a swath around the Bay of Fundy, the Northumberland Strait and the south coast of Newfoundland. Hurricane-force wind gusts were reported in several communities, peaking at 156 km/h (97 mph) in Grand Etang, Nova Scotia (equal to a Category 2 hurricane) and 133 km/h (83 mph) in Cape Race on the east coast of Newfoundland. Some damage was reported as a result of the strong winds, particularly downed power lines but also some roof damage to buildings.

Atlantic Canada
Only accumulations of 8 inches (20 cm) or greater are listed. Not all observations are listed due to space limitations; only major communities and notable reports are listed.
Sources: National Weather Service local offices - Sterling, VA, Mount Holly, NJ, Upton, NY, Taunton, MA, Caribou, ME, Gray, ME


Extratropical cyclone

Wednesday, November 28, 2007

Information highway
The information superhighway is a now-obsolete term that was used to describe the future of what existed up until the mid-1990s as the Internet (for the early state of the Internet, see Whole Internet User's Guide and Catalog).
Nam June Paik, a 20th century South Korean born American video artist, claims to have coined the term in 1974. "I used the term (information superhighway) in a study I wrote for the Rockefeller Foundation in 1974. I thought: if you create a highway, then people are going to invent cars. That's dialectics. If you create electronic highways, something has to happen." [1] The term was popularized by former Vice President of the United States, Al Gore in the early 1990s. [2], [3]

See also

Al Gore's contributions to the internet and technology
National Information Infrastructure
The Superhighway Summit

Tuesday, November 27, 2007

Reptiles are tetrapods and amniotes, animals whose embryos are surrounded by an amniotic membrane, and members of the class Sauropsida. Today they are represented by four surviving orders:
Modern reptiles inhabit every continent except for Antarctica, although their main distribution comprises the tropics and subtropics. Though all cellular metabolism produces some heat, most modern species of reptiles do not generate enough to maintain a constant body temperature and are thus referred to as "cold-blooded" or ectothermic (the Leatherback Sea Turtle might be an exception, see also gigantothermy). Instead, they rely on gathering and losing heat from the environment to regulate their internal temperature, e.g, by moving between sun and shade, or by preferential circulation — moving warmed blood into the body core, while pushing cool blood to the periphery. In their natural habitats, most species are adept at this, and can usually maintain core body temperatures within a fairly narrow range. Reptiles are thick-skinned; unlike amphibians, they do not need to absorb water. While this lack of adequate internal heating imposes costs relative to temperature regulation through behavior, it also provides a large benefit by allowing reptiles to survive on much less food than comparably-sized mammals and birds, who burn much of their food for warmth. While warm-blooded animals move faster in general, an attacking lizard, snake or crocodile moves very quickly.
Except for a few members of the Testudines, all reptiles are covered by scales.
Most reptile species are oviparous (egg-laying). Many species of squamates, however, are capable of giving live birth. This is achieved, either through ovoviviparity (egg retention), or viviparity (offspring born without use of calcified eggs). Many of the viviparous species feed their fetuses through various forms of placenta analogous to those of mammals (Pianka & Vitt, 2003 pgs: 116-118). They often provide considerable initial care for their hatchlings.

Reptilia Laurenti, 1768
Crocodilia (crocodiles, gharials, caimans and alligators): 23 species
Sphenodontia (tuataras from New Zealand): 2 species
Squamata (lizards, snakes and amphisbaenids ("worm-lizards")): approximately 7,900 species
Testudines (turtles and tortoises): approximately 300 species Classification of reptiles
From the classical standpoint, reptiles included all the amniotes except birds and mammals. Thus reptiles were defined as the set of animals that includes crocodiles, alligators, tuatara, lizards, snakes, amphisbaenians and turtles, grouped together as the class Reptilia (Latin repere, "to creep"). This is still the usual definition of the term. However, in recent years, many taxonomists have begun to insist that taxa should be monophyletic, that is, groups should include all descendants of a particular form. The reptiles as defined above would be paraphyletic, since they exclude both birds and mammals, although these also developed from the original reptile. Colin Tudge writes:
The terms "Sauropsida" ("Lizard Faces") and "Theropsida" ("Beast Faces") were coined in 1916 by E.S. Goodrich to distinguish between lizards, birds, and their relatives on one hand (Sauropsida) and mammals and their extinct relatives (Theropsida) on the other. This division is supported by the nature of the hearts and blood vessels in each group, and other features such as the structure of the forebrain. According to Goodrich both lineages evolved from an earlier stem group, the Protosauria ("First Lizards") which included some Paleozoic amphibians as well as early reptiles.
In 1956 D.M.S. Watson observed that the first two groups diverged very early in reptilian history, and so he divided Goodrich's Protosauria among them. He also reinterpreted the Sauropsida and Theropsida to exclude birds and mammals respectively. Thus his Sauropsida included Procolophonia, Eosuchia, Millerosauria, Chelonia (turtles), Squamata (lizards and snakes), Rhynchocephalia, Crocodilia, "thecodonts" (paraphyletic basal Archosauria), non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs, ichthyosaurs, and sauropyterygians.
This classification supplemented, but was never as popular as, the classification of the reptiles (according to Romer's classic Vertebrate Paleontology) into four subclasses according to the positioning of temporal fenestrae, openings in the sides of the skull behind the eyes. Those divisions were:
All of the above but Synapsida fall under Sauropsida.

Anapsida - no fenestrae
Synapsida - one low fenestra (no longer considered true reptiles)
Euryapsida - one high fenestra (now included within Diapsida)
Diapsida - two fenestrae Taxonomy

Hylonomus is the oldest-known reptile, and was about 8 to 12 inches (20 to 30 cm) long. Westlothiana has been suggested as the oldest reptile, but is for the moment considered to be more related to amphibians than amniotes. Petrolacosaurus and Mesosaurus are other examples. The earliest reptiles were found in the swamp forests of the Carboniferous, but were largely overshadowed by bigger labyrinthodont amphibians such as Proterogynrius. It was only after the small ice age at the end of the Carboniferous that the reptiles grew to big sizes, producing species such as Edaphosaurus and Dimetrodon.
The first true "reptiles" (Sauropsids) are categorized as Anapsids, having a solid skull with holes only for nose, eyes, spinal cord, etc. Turtles are believed by some to be surviving Anapsids, as they also share this skull structure; but this point has become contentious lately, with some arguing that turtles reverted to this primitive state in order to improve their armor. Both sides have strong evidence, and the conflict has yet to be resolved.
Shortly after the first reptiles, two branches split off, one leading to the Anapsids, which did not develop holes in their skulls. The other group, Diapsida, possessed a pair of holes in their skulls behind the eyes, along with a second pair located higher on the skull. The Diapsida split yet again into two lineages, the lepidosaurs (which contain modern snakes, lizards and tuataras, as well as, debatably, the extinct sea reptiles of the Mesozoic) and the archosaurs (today represented by only crocodilians and birds, but also containing pterosaurs and dinosaurs).
The earliest, solid-skulled amniotes also gave rise to a separate line, the Synapsida. Synapsids developed a pair of holes in their skulls behind the eyes (similar to the diapsids), which were used to both lighten the skull and increase the space for jaw muscles. The synapsids eventually evolved into mammals, and are often referred to as mammal-like reptiles, though they are not true members of Sauropsida. (A preferable term is "stem-mammals".)

Evolution of the reptiles

All reptiles have closed circulation via a three-chamber heart consisting of two atria and one, variably-partitioned ventricle. There is usually one pair of aortic arches. In spite of this, because of the fluid dynamics of blood flow through the heart, there is little mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in the three-chamber heart. Furthermore, the blood flow can be altered to shunt either deoxygenated blood to the body or oxygenated blood to the lungs, which gives the animal greater control over its blood flow, allowing more effective thermoregulation and longer diving times for aquatic species. There are some interesting exceptions among reptiles. For instance, crocodilians have an anatomically four-chambered heart that is capable of becoming a functionally three-chamber heart during dives (Mazzotti, 1989 pg 47). Also, it has been discovered that some snake and lizard species (e.g., monitor lizards and pythons) have three-chamber hearts that become functional four-chamber hearts during contraction. This is made possible by a muscular ridge that subdivides the ventricle during ventricular diastole and completely divides it during ventricular systole. Because of this ridge, some of these squamates are capable of producing ventricular pressure differentials that are equivalent to those seen in mammalian and avian hearts (Wang et al, 2003).

All reptiles breathe using lungs. Aquatic turtles have developed more permeable skin, and even gills in their anal region, for some species (Orenstein, 2001). Even with these adaptations, breathing is never fully accomplished without lungs. Lung ventilation is accomplished differently in each main reptile group. In squamates the lungs are ventilated almost exclusively by the axial musculature. This is also the same musculature that is used during locomotion. Because of this constraint, most squamates are forced to hold their breath during intense runs. Some, however, have found a way around it. Varanids, and a few other lizard species, employ buccal pumping as a complement to their normal "axial breathing." This allows the animals to completely fill their lungs during intense locomotion, and thus remain aerobically active for a long time. Tegu lizards are known to possess a proto-diaphragm, which separates the pulmonary cavity from the visceral cavity. While not actually capable of movement, it does allow for greater lung inflation, by taking the weight of the viscera off the lungs (Klein et al, 2003). Crocodilians actually have a muscular diaphragm that is analogous to the mammalian diaphragm. The difference is that the muscles for the crocodilian diaphragm pull the pubis (part of the pelvis, which is movable in crocodilians) back, which brings the liver down, thus freeing space for the lungs to expand. This type of diaphragmatic setup has been referred to as the "hepatic piston."
How Turtles & Tortoises breathe has been the subject of much study. To date, only a few species have been studied thoroughly enough to get an idea of how turtles do it. The results indicate that turtles & tortoises have found a variety of solutions to this problem. The problem is that most turtle shells are rigid and do not allow for the type of expansion and contraction that other amniotes use to ventilate their lungs. Some turtles such as the Indian flapshell (Lissemys punctata) have a sheet of muscle that envelopes the lungs. When it contracts, the turtle can exhale. When at rest, the turtle can retract the limbs into the body cavity and force air out of the lungs. When the turtle protracts its limbs, the pressure inside the lungs is reduced, and the turtle can suck air in. Turtle lungs are attached to the inside of the top of the shell (carapace), with the bottom of the lungs attached (via connective tissue) to the rest of the viscera. By using a series of special muscles (roughly equivalent to a diaphragm), turtles are capable of pushing their viscera up and down, resulting in effective respiration, since many of these muscles have attachment points in conjunction with their forelimbs (indeed, many of the muscles expand into the limb pockets during contraction). Breathing during locomotion has been studied in three species, and they show different patterns. Adult female green sea turtles do not breathe as they crutch along their nesting beaches. They hold their breath during terrestrial locomotion and breathe in bouts as they rest. North American box turtles breathe continuously during locomotion, and the ventilation cycle is not coordinated with the limb movements (Landberg et al., 2003). They are probably using their abdominal muscles to breathe during locomotion. The last species to have been studied is red-eared sliders, which also breathe during locomotion, but they had smaller breaths during locomotion than during small pauses between locomotor bouts, indicating that there may be mechanical interference between the limb movements and the breathing apparatus. Box turtles have also been observed to breathe while completely sealed up inside their shells (ibid).
Most reptiles lack a secondary palate, meaning that they must hold their breath while swallowing. Crocodilians have evolved a bony secondary palate that allows them to continue breathing while remaining submerged (and protect their brains from getting kicked in by struggling prey). Skinks (family Scincidae) also have evolved a bony secondary palate, to varying degrees. Snakes took a different approach and extended their trachea instead. Their tracheal extension sticks out like a fleshy straw, and allows these animals to swallow large prey without suffering from asphyxiation.
Also, crocodiles are known to cry while eating. Many myths and folklore have grown around this astonishing fact, such as that the crocodile feels guilty for eating, but in truth, the crocodile cries to release fluid from its body, to make room for oxygen. This is also due to the fact that the crocodile's nasal cavity (nose) is exceptionally small.

Excretion is performed mainly by two small kidneys. In diapsids uric acid is the main nitrogenous waste product; turtles, like mammals, mainly excrete urea. Unlike the kidneys of mammals and birds, reptile kidneys are unable to produce liquid urine more concentrated than their body fluid. This is because they lack a specialized structure present in the nephrons of birds and mammals, called a Loop of Henle. Because of this, many reptiles use the colon and cloaca to aid in the reabsorption of water. Some are also able to take up water stored in the bladder. Excess salts are also excreted by nasal and lingual salt-glands in some reptiles.

Reptiles Excretory
The reptilian nervous system contains the same basic part of the amphibian brain, but the reptile cerebrum and cerebellum are slightly larger. Most typical sense organs are well developed with certain exceptions most notably the snakes lack of external ears (middle and inner ears are present). All reptilians have advanced visual depth perception compared to other animals. There are twelve pairs of cranial nerves.[1]

Most reptiles reproduce sexually. All male reptiles except turtles and tortoises have a twin tube-like sexual organ called the hemipenes. Turtles and tortoises have a single penis. All testudines lay eggs, none are live bearing as some lizards and snakes are. All reproductive activity occurs with the cloaca, the single exit/entrance at the base of the tail where waste and reproduction happens.
Asexual reproduction has been identified in squamates in six families of lizards and one snake. In some species of squamates, a population of females are able to produce a unisexual diploid clone of the mother. This asexual reproduction called parthenogenesis occurs in several species of gecko, and is particularly widespread in the teiids (especially Aspidocelis) and lacertids (Lacerta) In captivity Komodo dragons (varanidae) have reproduced by parthenogenesis.
Parthenogenetic species are also suspected to occur among chameleons, agamids, xantusiids, and typhlopids.
Amniotic eggs are covered with leathery or calcareous shells. An amnion, chorion and allantois are present during embryonic life. There are no larval stages of development.


Colin Tudge (2000). The Variety of Life. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198604262. 
Benton, Michael J. (2004). Vertebrate Paleontology, 3rd ed., Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.. ISBN 0632056371. 
Colbert, Edwin H. (1969). Evolution of the Vertebrates, 2nd ed., New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc.. ISBN 0471164666. 
Goodrich, E.S. (1916). "On the classification of the Reptilia". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 89B: 261-276. 
Klein, Wilfied; Abe, Augusto; Andrade, Denis; Perry, Steven (2003). Structure of the posthepatic septum and its influence on visceral topology in the tegu lizard, Tupinambis merianae (Teidae: Reptilia). Journal of Morphology 258 (2): 151-157. 
Landberg, Tobias; Mailhot, Jeffrey; Brainerd, Elizabeth (2003). Lung ventilation during treadmill locomotion in a terrestrial turtle, Terrapene carolina. Journal of Experimental Biology 206 (19): 3391-3404. 
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