Friday, August 31, 2007

CamelCase (also spelled camel case) or medial capitals is the practice of writing compound words or phrases in which the words are joined without spaces and are capitalized within the compound. The term's name comes from the uppercase "bumps" in the middle of the compound word, suggestive of the humps of a camel. An example is BackColor.
There are many other names for this practice, including BiCapitalization, InterCaps, InfixCaps, MixedCase, and PolyCaps. CamelCase is a standard identifier naming convention for several programming languages, and has become fashionable in marketing for names of products and companies. Outside these contexts, however, CamelCase is rarely used in formal written English, and most style guides recommend against its use.

Variations and synonyms
The term StudlyCaps is similar — but not necessarily identical — to CamelCase. It is sometimes used in reference to CamelCase but can also refer to random mixed capitalisation (as in "MiXeD CaPitALiSaTioN") as popularly used in online culture.
The term Title Case is also similar, but Title Case has spaces between the words. Title Case also doesn't usually uppercase certain small words such as 'and' and 'the'.[4][5][6]

Similar terms

CamelCase has been sporadically used since ancient times, for example as a traditional spelling style for certain surnames, such as in Scottish names like MacLean ("son of Gilian") and Hiberno-Norman names like FitzGerald (originally, "son of Gerald"). Often, names from French origin are spelled this way in English, though they never are in French. The name and preposition will appear as a single capitalized word (Dupont) or with a space between the (lowercased) preposition and the capitalized word. (du Pont) e.g. the DuPont company was founded by Eleuthère Irénée du Pont ("of/from the bridge"). In the mid-20th century, it was used occasionally for product trademarks, such as CinemaScope and VistaVision, rival widescreen movie formats introduced in the 1950s. CamelCase also occurred sometimes in acronyms like DoD, or technical codes and formulas like HeLa (1983). CamelCase has also been used to transliterate acronyms from alphabets such as Cyrillic where two letters may be required to represent a single character of the original alphabet. An example of this is the DShK (Cyrillic: ДШК).

Early uses

Software Engineering
In programs of any significant size, there is a need for descriptive (hence multi-word) identifiers, like "previous balance" or "end of file". However, spaces are not typically permitted inside identifiers, as they are treated as delimiters between tokens. Writing the words together as in "endoffile" is not satisfactory because the names often become unreadable. Therefore, the programming language COBOL allowed a hyphen ("-") to be used between words of compound identifiers, as in "END-OF-FILE".
Most programming languages, however, interpret the hyphen as a subtraction operator and do not allow the character in identifier names. The common punched card character sets of the time had no lower-case letters and no special character that would be adequate as a word separator in identifiers. However, by the late 1960s the ASCII character set standard had been established, allowing the designers of the C language to adopt the underscore character "_" as a word joiner. Underscore-separated compounds like "end_of_file" are still prevalent in C programs and libraries.
CamelCase is by no means universal in computing. Users of several modern programming languages, notably those in the Lisp and Forth families, nearly always use hyphens. Among the reasons sometimes given are that doing so does not require shifting on most keyboards, and that the words are more readable when they are separated.
The use of CamelCase became widespread only in the 1970s or 1980s, when it was adopted as a standard or alternative naming convention for multi-word identifiers in several programming languages.

Programming and coding style
One explanation of the origins of CamelCase in computing claims that the style originated within the culture of C programmers and hackers, who found it more convenient than the standard underscore-based style.
On most keyboards, the underscore key is inconveniently placed. Additionally, in some fonts the underscore character can be confused with a minus sign; it can be overlooked because it falls below the string of characters, or it can be lost entirely when displayed or printed underlined, or when printed on a dot-matrix printer with a defective pin or misaligned ribbon. Moreover, compiler limits on identifier length and the small computer displays available in the 1970s worked together to encourage brevity. Many programmers thus chose to use CamelCase for it yielded legible compound names with fewer keystrokes and fewer characters.

The "Lazy Programmer" origin
Programmers working in the tradition of linkage oriented languages, especially the Unix C tradition (and later C++), had many concerns to address. Early Unix systems (and early personal computers in general) provided linkage models where external identifiers were distinguished to a short length, often as few as the initial eight characters. Many clashes were possible within the external identifier linkage space which potentially mingles code generated by various high level compilers, runtime libraries required by each of these compilers, compiler generated helper functions, and program startup code, of which some fraction was inevitably compiled from system assembly language. Within this collision domain the underscore character quickly became entrenched as the primary mechanism for differentiating the external linkage space. It was common practice for C compilers to prepend a leading underscore to all external scope program identifiers to avert clashes with contributions from runtime language support. Furthermore, when the C/C++ compiler needed to introduce names into external linkage as part of the translation process, these names were often distinguished with some combination of multiple leading or trailing underscores.
This practice was later codified as part of the C and C++ language standards, in which the use of leading underscores was reserved for the implementation.
A second, independent collision domain was the C preprocessor. The C language preprocessor is unusual in that it does not respect any language-defined scoping model or reserved namespace, not even C language keywords. This problem was generally addressed by writing macros in macro case which mostly mixes upper case letters with dividing underscores:
Once again the implementation must often supply hidden macros, and once again dressing up these "hidden behind the scenes" identifiers with multiple leading or trailing underscores became accepted practice. As this practice became pervasive on both levels, the underscore gained a cognitive association with system level programming, hidden technicalities, and the messy entrails of language support.
The C language linkage model further complicated matters by not supporting a strong module-level linkage model. In the C language the concept of module was initially rather loose. There was no language distinction between function names intended for linkage to other compilation units and function names intended only for use within a single compilation unit to simplify the implementation. The C language provides the static keyword which makes it possible to hide names from external linkage, but this was rarely employed, as it also obscured these names from most runtime debugging tools.

The "Paranoid Programmer" origin
Another explanation is that CamelCase started at Xerox PARC around 1978, with the Mesa programming language developed for the Xerox Alto computer. This machine lacked an underscore key, and the hyphen and space characters were not permitted in identifiers, leaving CamelCase as the only viable scheme for readable multiword names. The PARC Mesa Language Manual (1979) included a coding standard with specific rules for Upper- and lowerCamelCase which was strictly followed by the Mesa libraries and the Alto operating system.
The Smalltalk language, which was developed originally on the Alto and became quite popular in the early 1980s, may have been instrumental in spreading the style outside PARC. CamelCase was also used by convention for many names in the PostScript page description language (invented by Adobe Systems founder and ex-PARC scientist John Warnock). Further boost was provided by Niklaus Wirth — the inventor of Pascal — who acquired a taste for CamelCase during a sabbatical at PARC, and used it in Modula, his next programming language.

The "Alto Keyboard" origin
During the same period in which personal computers exposed hacker culture to a more mainstream audience in the 1980s and 1990s, CamelCase became fashionable for corporate trade names, first in computer-related fields but later expanding further into the mainstream. The city of SeaTac, Washington is the first city officially spelled in CamelCase. Though not technically CamelCase, during the dot-com bubble of the late 1990s, in particular, the lowercase prefixes "e" (for "electronic") and "i" (for "Internet", "information", or perhaps "intelligent") became quite common. Examples ranging from the 1960s to the 2000s give a history of the spread of the usage:
This fashion has become so pervasive that it is often incorrectly applied to names that do not use it officially, as in TransAmerica (Transamerica), FireFox (Firefox), UseNet (Usenet), GameBoy (Game Boy), MacWorld (Macworld), and CalTech (Caltech).

(1962) ShopKo, MisteRogers (Canadian version of Mister Rogers)[8]
(1967) AstroTurf
(1971) ConAgra (formerly Consolidated Mills)
(1975) MicroSoft (now Microsoft)
(1977) CompuServe, UnitedHealthCare (now UnitedHealthcare [9], with several other variations of capitalization and spacing over the years)
(1979) MasterCard, SportsCenter, VisiCalc
(1980) EchoStar
(1982) AutoCAD, WordPerfect
(1983) NetWare
(1984) BellSouth, LaserJet, MacWorks
(1985) PageMaker, EastEnders
(1986) SpaceCamp
(1987) ClarisWorks, HyperCard, PowerPoint
(1989) MicroStrategy
(1990) HarperCollins
(1991) QuickTime, PowerBook, SuperAmerica
(1992) OutKast (hip hop band), ThinkPad
(1993) AmeriCorps, ValuJet (now AirTran Airways), SolidWorks
(1994) EarthLink, PlayStation, easyJet (an early use of CamelCase with lowercase first letter)
(1995) RealPlayer, WorldCom (now MCI)
(1996) RadioShack (formerly Radio Shack)
(1997) TiVo
(1998) DaimlerChrysler, PricewaterhouseCoopers (logo), iMac
(1999) BlackBerry, DragonForce (British Power Metal band, originally DragonHeart), SpongeBob SquarePants
(2000) FedEx (formerly Federal Express), GlaxoSmithKline, PayPal
(2001) AmerisourceBergen, ChevronTexaco (now Chevron), GameCube
(2002) ConocoPhillips
(2003) MySpace
(2005) YouTube, PetSmart (formerly PETsMART) CamelCase Spread to mainstream usage
The original name of the practice, used in media studies, grammars, and the Oxford English Dictionary, was "medial capitals". The fancier names such as "InterCaps", "CamelCase", and variations thereof are relatively recent, and seem more common in computer-related communities.
The earliest known occurrence of the term InterCaps on Usenet is in an April 1990 post to the group alt.folklore.computers by Avi Rappoport [10], with BiCapitalization appearing slightly later in a 1991 post by Eric S. Raymond to the same group [11]. The earliest use of the name "CamelCase" occurs in 1995, in a post by Newton Love. [12]. "With the advent of programming languages having these sorts of constructs, the humpiness of the style made me call it HumpyCase at first, before I settled on CamelCase. I had been calling it CamelCase for years," said Newton, [13] "The citation above was just the first time I had used the name on USENET."
The name CamelCase is not related to the "Camel book" (Programming Perl), which uses all-lowercase identifiers with underscores in its sample code.

CamelCase History of the name

Usage in Other Languages
For almost two centuries, chemistry has had its own international language based on CamelCase identifiers for molecules.
For example: NaCl for common table salt.
Or: GaAs for Gallium Arsenide
Reference: Jöns Jacob Berzelius. Essay on the Cause of Chemical Proportions, and on Some Circumstances Relating to Them: Together with a Short and Easy Method of Expressing Them. Annals of Philosophy 2, 443-454 (1813), 3, 51-2, 93-106, 244-255, 353-364 (1814) [from Henry M. Leicester & Herbert S. Klickstein, eds., A Source Book in Chemistry, 1400-1900 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard, 1952)]

CamelCase in Chemistry Language
CamelCase has been used in languages other than English for a variety of purposes, such as the transcription of Tibetan names like rLobsang, or names of Bantu languages like kiSwahili or isiZulu. In French, abbreviations such as OuLiPo (1960) were favored for a time as alternatives to acronyms. In Irish orthography, when a word has undergone eclipsis, only the letter corresponding to the unmutated form is capitalized; for example Gaillimh means "Galway", and its initial letter is the one capitalized in i nGaillimh "in Galway". The same holds when t or h is prefixed to a capital letter: an tAlbanach "the Scottish person" (from Albanach "Scottish person"), an tSín "China" (cf. Síneach "Chinese person"), go hÉireann "to Ireland" (from Éire "Ireland).

CamelCase in Natural Languages
In the German language, nouns carry a grammatical gender, which as for words indicating the role of someone, like job titles, is mostly masculine. A capital I marking the beginning of the feminine title suffix "In" (and "Innen" for plural) has since the 80s become customary in those German language media circulating among a feminist or left-wing readership as a politically meaningful spelling to emphasize the inclusion of females. Example: LeserInnenbriefe instead of Leserbriefe (Letters from readers).


All caps
Naming conventions (programming)

Thursday, August 30, 2007

Multimedia (Lat. Multum + Medium) is media that uses multiple forms of information content and information processing (e.g. text, audio, graphics, animation, video, interactivity) to inform or entertain the (user) audience. Multimedia also refers to the use of (but not limited to) electronic media to store and experience multimedia content. Multimedia is similar to traditional mixed media in fine art, but with a broader scope. The term "rich media" is synonymous for interactive multimedia. Multimedia means that computer info can be represented through audio, graphics, image, video and animation in addition to traditional media(text and graphics). Hypermedia can be considered one particular multimedia application.
Multimedia is a combination of content forms:

Multimedia presentations may be viewed in person on stage, projected, transmitted, or played locally with a media player. A broadcast may be a live or recorded multimedia presentation. Broadcasts and recordings can be either analog or digital electronic media technology. Digital online multimedia may be downloaded or streamed. Streaming multimedia may be live or on-demand.
Multimedia games and simulations may be used in a physical environment with special effects, with multiple users in an online network, or locally with an offline computer, game system, or simulator.
The various formats of technological or digital multimedia may be intended to enhance the users experience, for example to make it easier and faster to convey information. Or in entertainment or art, to transcend everyday experience.
Enhanced levels of interactivity are made possible by combining multiple forms of media content. Online multimedia is increasingly becoming object-oriented and data-driven, enabling applications with collaborative end-user innovation and personalization on multiple forms of content over time. Examples of these range from multiple forms of content on web sites like photo galleries with both images (pictures) and title (text) user-updated, to simulations whose co-efficients, events, illustrations, animations or videos are modifiable, allowing the multimedia "experience" to be altered without reprogramming. In addition to seeing and hearing, Haptic technology enables virtual objects to be felt. Emerging technology involving illusions of taste and smell may also enhance the multimedia experience.


In 1965 the term Multi-media was used to describe the Exploding Plastic Inevitable, a performance that combined live rock music, cinema, experimental lighting and performance art.
In the intervening forty years the word has taken on different meanings. In the late 1970s the term was used to describe presentations consisting of multi-projector slide shows timed to an audio track. In the 1990s it took on its current meaning. In common usage the term multimedia refers to an electronically delivered combination of media including video, still images, audio, text in such a way that can be accessed interactively. Much of the content on the web today falls within this definition as understood by millions.

History of the term
Since media is the plural of medium, the term "multimedia" is a pleonasm if "multi" is used to describe multiple occurrences of only one form of media such as a collection of audio CDs. This is why it's important that the word "multimedia" is used exclusively to describe multiple forms of media.
The term "multimedia" is also ambiguous. Static content (such as a paper book) may be considered multimedia if it contains both pictures and text or may be considered interactive if the user interacts by turning pages at will. Books may also be considered non-linear if the pages are accessed non-sequentially. The term "video", if not used exclusively to describe motion photography, is ambiguous in multimedia terminology. Video is often used to describe the file format, delivery format, or presentation format instead of the form of information content such as moving illustrations or still pictures. Multiple forms of information content are often not considered multimedia if they don't contain modern forms of presentation such as audio or video. Likewise, single forms of information content with single methods of information processing (e.g. non-interactive audio) are often called multimedia, perhaps to distinguish static media from active media.

Word usage and context
Multimedia finds its application in various areas including, but not limited to, advertisements, art, education, entertainment, engineering, medicine, mathematics, business, scientific research and spatial temporal applications. Below are the several examples as follows:


Creative industries use multimedia for a variety of purposes ranging from fine arts, to entertainment, to commercial art, to journalism, to media and software services provided for any of the industries listed below. An individual multimedia designer may cover the spectrum throughout their career. Request for their skills range from technical, to analytical, to creative.

Creative industries
Much of the electronic old and new media utilized by commercial artists is multimedia. Exciting presentations are used to grab and keep attention in advertising. Industrial, business to business, and interoffice communications are often developed by creative services firms for advanced multimedia presentations beyond simple slide shows to sell ideas or liven-up training. Commercial multimedia developers may be hired to design for governmental services and nonprofit services applications as well.

In addition, multimedia is heavily used in the entertainment industry, especially to develop special effects in movies and animations. Multimedia games are a popular pastime and are software programs available either as CD-ROMs or online. Some video games also use multimedia features.
Multimedia applications that allow users to actively participate instead of just sitting by as passive recipients of information are called Interactive Multimedia.
In the Arts there are multimedia artists, whose minds are able to blend techniques using different media that in some way incorporates interaction with the viewer. One of the most relevant could be Peter Greenaway who is melding Cinema with Opera and all sorts of digital media. Another approach entails the creation of multimedia that can be displayed in a traditional fine arts arena, such as an art gallery. For the most part these artists are using materials that will not hold up over time.

Entertainment and fine arts
In Education, multimedia is used to produce computer-based training courses (popularly called CBTs) and reference books like encyclopaedia and almanacs. A CBT lets the user go through a series of presentations, text about a particular topic, and associated illustrations in various information formats. Edutainment is an informal term used to describe combining education with entertainment, especially multimedia entertainment.

Software engineers may use multimedia in Computer Simulations for anything from entertainment to training such as military or industrial training. Multimedia for software interfaces are often done as a collaboration between creative professionals and software engineers.

In the Industrial sector, multimedia is used as a way to help present information to shareholders, superiors and coworkers. Multimedia is also helpful for providing employee training, advertising and selling products all over the world via virtually unlimited web-based technologies. dsfh

Mathematical and Scientific Research
In Medicine, doctors can get trained by looking at a virtual surgery or they can simulate how the human body is affected by diseases spread by viruses and bacteria and then develop techniques to prevent it.

Multimedia Medicine
In Europe, the reference organization for Multimedia industry is the European Multimedia Associations Convention (EMMAC).
An observatory for jobs in the multimedia industry provides surveys and analysis about multimedia and ITC jobs.[1]

Multimedia Conferences
Multimedia Making it Work, by Tay Vaughan, Published by Osborne McGraw Hill 1993 ISBN 0-07-881869 m

Tuesday, August 28, 2007

Battle of Vicksburg
The Battle of Vicksburg, or Siege of Vicksburg, was the final significant battle in the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War. In a series of skilled maneuvers, Union Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and his Army of the Tennessee crossed the Mississippi River and drove the Confederate army of Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton into defensive lines surrounding the fortress city of Vicksburg, Mississippi. Grant besieged the city from May 18 to July 4, 1863, until it surrendered, yielding command of the Mississippi River to the Union.

Grant's optimism grew as he realized he had the city invested. With their backs against the Mississippi and Union gunboats firing from the river, Confederate soldiers and citizens alike were trapped. Grant's troops dug in and started a siege. Pemberton was determined to hold his few miles of the Mississippi as long as possible, hoping for relief from Johnston or elsewhere.
A new problem confronted the Confederates. The dead and wounded of Grant's army lay in the heat of Mississippi summer, the odor of the deceased men and horses fouling the air, the wounded crying for medical help and water. Grant first refused a request of truce, thinking it a show of weakness. Finally he relented, and the Confederates held their fire while the Union recovered the wounded and dead, soldiers from both sides mingling and trading as if no hostilities existed for the moment.
In an effort to cut Grant's supply line, the Confederates attacked Milliken's Bend up the Mississippi on June 7. This was mainly defended by untrained colored troops, who fought bravely with inferior weaponry and finally fought off the rebels with help from gunboats, although at horrible cost; the defenders lost 652 to the Confederate 185. The loss at Milliken's Bend left the rebels with no hope for relief but from the cautious Johnston.
All through June, the Union dug lines parallel to and approaching the rebel lines. Soldiers could not poke their heads up above their works for fear of snipers. It was a sport for Union troops to poke a hat above the works on a rod, betting on how many rebel bullets would pierce it in a given time.
Pemberton was boxed in with lots of inedible munitions and little food. The poor diet was showing on the Confederate soldiers. By the end of June, half were out sick or hospitalized. Scurvy, malaria, dysentery, diarrhea, and other diseases cut their ranks. At least one city resident had to stay up at night to keep starving soldiers out of his vegetable garden. The constant shelling did not bother him as much as the loss of his food. As the siege wore on, fewer and fewer horses, mules, and dogs were seen wandering about Vicksburg. Shoe leather became a last resort of sustenance for many adults.
As the bombing continued, suitable housing in Vicksburg was reduced to a minimum. A ridge, located between the main town and the rebel defense line, provided a diverse citizenry with lodging for the duration. Whether houses were structurally sound or not, it was deemed safer to occupy these dugouts. People did their best to make them comfortable, with rugs, furniture, and pictures. They tried to time their movements and foraging with the rhythm of the cannonade, sometimes unsuccessfully. Because of these dugouts or caves, the Union soldiers gave the town the nickname of "Prairie Dog Village." Since the fighting line was fairly close, soldiers made their way rearward to visit family and friends, a boost to morale.

One of the major roads into Vicksburg was the Jackson Road. To guard this entrance the 3rd Louisiana Infantry built a large earthen redan, which became known as the 3rd Louisiana Redan. Union troops tunneled under the redan and packed the mine with 2,200 pounds of black powder. The explosion blew apart the Confederate lines on June 25, while an infantry attack made by troops from Maj. Gen. John A. Logan's XVII Corps division followed the blast. Logan's troops led by Col. Jaspar Maltby's 45th Illinois Regiment charged into the crater with ease. They were, however, stopped by rearward Confederate infantry and became pinned down in the crater. Short fuse shells were simply rolled into the crater with deadly results. Union engineers worked to set up casement in the crater in order to extricate the infantry and soon the soldiers fell back to a new defensive line. From the crater left by the explosion on June 25, Union miners worked to dig a new mine to the south. On July 1, this mine was detonated but no infantry attack followed. Pioneers worked throughout July 2 and July 3 to widen the initial crater large enough for an infantry column of four to pass through for future anticipated assaults. However, events the following day negated any further assaults.

Mine explosions
Joseph E. Johnston, the only possibility for a Confederate rescue, felt his force at Jackson was too small to attack Grant's huge army. While Johnston's force was growing (at cost to the rest of the hard-pressed Confederacy), Grant's was growing faster, supplied via the now-open Yazoo River. Johnston, lacking in supplies, stated, "I consider saving Vicksburg hopeless." The Confederate government felt otherwise, asking the cautious Johnston to attack, requests he resisted. Robert E. Lee had remarked that the Mississippi climate in June would be sufficient to defeat the Union attack and he resisted calls to ride to the city's rescue from the Eastern Theater; his Army of Northern Virginia instead invaded the North in the Gettysburg Campaign with the partial objective of relieving pressure on Vicksburg. Finally on July 1, Johnston's relief column began cautiously advancing due west toward Union lines. On July 3 he was ready for his attack, but on July 4, Independence Day, the Union guns were oddly quiet.
On July 3, Pemberton sent a note to Grant, who, as at Fort Donelson, first demanded unconditional surrender. But Grant reconsidered, not wanting to feed 30,000 hungry Confederates in Union prison camps, and offered to parole all prisoners. Considering their destitute state, dejected and starving, he never expected them to fight again; he hoped they would carry home the stigma of defeat to the rest of the Confederacy. In any event, it would have occupied his army and taken months to ship that many troops north.
Surrender was formalized by an old oak tree, "made historical by the event." In his Personal Memoirs, Grant described the fate of this luckless tree:
Although there was more action to come in the Vicksburg Campaign, the fortress city had fallen and, with the capture of Port Hudson on July 8, the Mississippi River was firmly in Union hands and the Confederacy split in two.
The Fourth of July holiday was not celebrated by most of the citizens of Vicksburg until World War II, because of the surrender of the city on July 4.
The works around Vicksburg are now maintained by the National Park Service as Vicksburg National Military Park.

See also

Ballard, Michael B., Vicksburg, The Campaign that Opened the Mississippi, University of North Carolina Press, 2004, ISBN 0-8078-2893-9.
Bearss, Edwin C., The Vicksburg Campaign, 3 volumes, Morningside Press, 1991, ISBN 0-89029-308-2.
Catton, Bruce, Never Call Retreat, Doubleday, 1965, ISBN 0-671-46990-8.
Eicher, David J., The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War, Simon & Schuster, 2001, ISBN 0-684-84944-5.
Foote, Shelby, The Civil War, A Narrative: Fredericksburg to Meridian, Random House, 1958, ISBN 0-394-49517-9.
Grant, Ulysses S., Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant, Charles L. Webster & Company, 1885–86, ISBN 0-914427-67-9.
Kennedy, Frances H., ed., The Civil War Battlefield Guide, 2nd ed., Houghton Mifflin Co., 1998, ISBN 0-395-74012-6.
McPherson, James M., Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (Oxford History of the United States), Oxford University Press, 1988, ISBN 0-19-503863-0.
National Park Service battle description

Monday, August 27, 2007

Instructional capital
Instructional capital is a term used in educational administration after the 1960s, to reflect capital resulting from investment in producing learning materials.
Some have objected to this phrasing, which is an elaboration of referring to training as "human capital," either for the same reason that phrase is objectionable, or on the grounds that it implies that the human in which the knowledge is "invested" is a resource to be exploited.
Instructional capital can be used to guide or limit or restrict action by people (individual capital) or equipment (infrastructural capital) (if the learning materials are computer programs). It cannot generally make either individuals or infrastructure do what they are not trained or designed to do, but it can help prevent them from doing most stupid, destructive and dangerous things.
When people begin to trust instructions, they tend to associate social capital with them, as symbolized by a brand, flag or label. This is usually opens up a possibility for those with power to start cheating and creating bad instructions that can no longer be trusted, but the good reputation of the brand, flag or label protects them from being caught for longer than would be the case without the symbol that is associated with good reputation.

Sunday, August 26, 2007

Maly Trascianiec (see alternate spellings), a small village on the outskirts of Minsk, Belarus, was the site of a Nazi extermination camp.
Originally built in the summer of 1941, on the site of a Soviet kolkhoz, as a concentration camp to house Soviet prisoners of war who had been captured following the German attack on Soviet Union which commenced on June 22 of that year (known as Operation Barbarossa), the camp became a Vernichtungslager, or extermination camp, on May 10, 1942 when the first transport of Jews arrived there. While many Jews from Germany, Austria and the present-day Czech Republic met their deaths there (in most cases almost immediately upon their arrival, by being trucked to the nearby Blagovshchina (Благовщина) and Shashkovka (Шашковка) Forests' killing grounds and shot in the back of the neck), the primary purpose of the camp was the extermination of the substantial Jewish community of Minsk and the surrounding area. Mobile gas chambers deployed here performed a subsidiary if not insignificant function in the genocidal process.
On June 28, 1944, as the Red Army approached the region, the Nazis bombed the camp in an attempt to obliterate evidence of its existence, in conformity with the aims of the so‑called Aktion 1005. But the Soviets are said to have discovered 34 grave‑pits, some (not all) measuring as much as 50 meters in length and 3 to 4 meters in depth, located in the Blagovshchina Forest some 500 meters from the Minsk–Mogilev highway, at about the 11Signage on the site indicates 206,000 were murdered there. The site is scheduled for a reconstruction and development. Currently nothing remains of the camp other than a row of poplars planted by the inmates as part of the border of the camp.
A memorial has been built at the site of the camp, and attracts thousands of visitors annually, especially since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, which has eased travel restrictions.

Maly TrostinetsMaly Trostinets Victims of the camp

Vintsėnt Hadlewski [Wincenty Gadlewski], Roman-Catholic priest and resistance fighter (b. 1888), arrested in Minsk on December 24, 1942 and shot at Trascianiec the same day (see Syargyey Yorsh (b. 1972), Rytsar Svabody... [Рыцар Свабоды: Ксёндз Вінцэнт Гадлеўскі як ідэоляг і арганізатар беларускага нацыянальнага антынацыскага Супраціву; =Champion of Liberty: The Reverend Vintsėnt Hadlewski as the Ideologue and Organizer of Belarusian National Anti‑Fascist Resistance], Minsk, Belaruski Rėzystans, 2004 — a monograph on his life; Library of Congress control No. 2004454542: call No. not available).

Saturday, August 25, 2007

World Tourism Organization
The United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), headquartered in Madrid, Spain, is a United Nations agency dealing with questions relating to tourism. It compiles the World Tourism Rankings. The World Tourism Organization is undoubtedly the most significant global body concerned with the collection and collation of statistical information on international tourism. This organization represents public sector tourism bodies from most countries in the world and the publication of its data makes possible comparisons of the flow and growth of tourism on a global scale.

Friday, August 24, 2007

The Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong (DAB) (Traditional Chinese: 民主建港協進聯盟, or 民建聯 in short), formerly known as The Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong (民主建港聯盟) is the largest pro-Beijing political party in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. Founded in 10 July 1992, the party has been headed by Malik since December 2003 until his death in August 2007.
A merger with the Hong Kong Progressive Alliance was announced on 16 February 2005. The two parties were merged with new leadership selected on 31 May 2005.

Party beliefs

Basic Law Government     Chief Executive        Donald Tsang     Chief Secretary for Administration        Henry Tang     Financial Secretary        John Tsang     Secretary for Justice        Wong Yan Lung     Executive Council        Leung Chun YingDemocratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong     Depts and related organisations Legislative Council     Rita Fan Elections Political parties     DAB        Ma Lik     Liberal Party        James Tien     Democratic Party        Albert Ho     Civic Party        Kuan Hsin-chi        Audrey Eu     League of Social Democrats        Raymond Wong Yuk Man Judiciary     Court of Final Appeal Districts District Councils Human rights Foreign relations
The party started with a single seat on the Legislative Council (LegCo). The 1995 LegCo elections increased the DAB's share to six seats. After 1997 when Hong Kong was transferred to the People's Republic of China (PRC), DAB enjoyed political favour from the PRC, and gained a number of seats in Legco through Functional Constituency election which was deemed unfair, and they remain unfavour in local district direct election. In 2000 it had ten councillors in Legco. The most recent Legislative Council election in 2004, it become the largest (by number) political party to be represented with 12 seats, with the Liberal Party coming second (10 seats), and the Democratic Party coming third (9 seats).
Twelve district councillors joined the party on its formation, a share that increased to 37 seats in the 1994 elections and 83 in 1999. In the wake of the controversies over the legislation of Article 23 of the Basic Law in 2003, the party's popularity dropped drastically and the November 2003 District Councils elections saw its seats drop to 62. The election results have led to the resignation of its former Chairman, Jasper Tsang Yok-sing. However, as Ma Lik is undergoing treatment for colon cancer, Tsang still effectively controls the DAB.
The DAB and its sister organisation HKFTU are well-known for their ability to mobilize their supporters, including employees of PRC state-owned companies, to vote for their candidates in elections. In the 2004 Legislative Council election, they managed to exploit the proportional representation electoral system to equalise votes for two of the candidates the party endorsed standing in the same constituency. Although support of Chan Yuen Han (DAB) was far higher than Chan Kam Lam (HKFTU), according to earlier polls, the two organisations managed to have both elected. At another constituency, the ticket of Malik and Choy So Yuk ultimately benefitted from a democratic camp mix-up that led to the resignation of the Democratic Party's leader, Yeung Sum.

On May 15, 2007, party leader Malik provoked nearly universal condemnation when he said that "there was not a massacre" during the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, as there was "no intentional and indiscriminate shooting". He said this showed Hong Kong was "not mature enough" for believing foreigners' rash claims that a massacre took place. He said that Hong Kong showed through its lack of patriotism and national identity, that it would thus "not be ready for democracy until 2022". The DAB Central committee declined any further action against ma following their meeting, and there was no official apology. In May, Sze Lun Hung Had Replace Grace Au To District Council East Kowloon Vacant Pursuant.

"not a massacre"
As the biggest political party of Hong Kong, the 10-year-party can be divided into three main factions:
1. Unionists, i.e. members belonging or came from the Federation of Trade Unions. 2. Indigenous residents in the New Territories 3. Fujianese

List of chairmen

Thursday, August 23, 2007

Arlene Golonka (Born January 23, 1939 in Chicago, Illinois) is an American actress. She is perhaps best known for playing Millie Swanson on the television comedies The Andy Griffith Show and Mayberry R.F.D., and often portrayed bubbly, eccentric blondes in supporting character roles on stage, film, and television.

Arlene GolonkaArlene Golonka Biography
Golonka began her acting career when she was 8 years old, and went professional in a summer-stock troupe while still in her teens. After studying at the prestigious Goodman Theatre in her native Chicago, she made her way to New York City at age 19 where she studied with Lee Strasberg, Sanford Meisner, and Uta Hagen.

Wednesday, August 22, 2007

For other places called Islamabad, see Islamabad (disambiguation).
Islamabad  (Urdu: اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan, and is located in the Potohar Plateau in the northwest of the country. It is located within the Islamabad Capital Territory, the area has historically been a part of the crossroads of the Rawalpindi and the North-West Frontier Province (the Margalla pass being a historic gateway to the North-West Frontier Province. Islamabad is located at 33°40′N, 73°10′E.
The city was built during the 1960s to replace Karachi as Pakistan's capital. A Greek firm of architects, Doxiadis Associates, drew up a master plan, triangular in shape based on a grid system with its apex towards the Margalla Hills. Rawalpindi is considered its sister city due to the close proximity of the two cities.
This city was built for several reasons: The development of the country was focused on Karachi and President Ayub Khan wanted it to be equally distributed; Karachi was vulnerable to attack from the sea in an event of a war with India; and Islamabad by contrast is safely surrounded by the mountains. The climate in Islamabad is favourable compared to Karachi with lower average temperatures throughout the year. It was also closer to the GHQ which was, and still is in Rawalpindi.
Islamabad is a rather modern and clean city, especially in comparison to other cities in Pakistan. It is well-organized, with the city being divided into different sectors and zones. Islamabad was divided into eight zones: the diplomatic enclave, the commercial district, the educational sector, the industrial area and so on, each with its own shopping area and park. Islamabad is also home to the Faisal Mosque which is well known for its architecture and immense size. The mosque was gifted by King Faisal of Saudi Arabia.
There is no proper District Government setup in ICT but efforts are being made towards the establishment of a local Government system in the ICT, which is still not in place in ICT as local government systems exist in other parts of the country. In 2005, the Ministry of Interior divided the ICT into 40 union councils — 20 union councils in rural/urban areas of the ICT. However, the Union Council system is yet to be implemented. The 20 union councils each cover the following regions of the ICT (the name in brackets refers to each council's jurisdiction, named after a main town in the area covered by each council, e.g. Rewat or Tarnol):
Union Council No. 1 (Rewat): Rewat, Bhangreel Kalan, Bhangreel Khurd, Kortara, Takht Pari, Shadi Dhamial, Mohra Amir, Sood Gangal, Mohri Khumbal, Sheikhpur, Hoon Dhamial, Chuchkal and Bhima Kanait.
Union Council No. 2 (Humak): Humak, Kotha Kalan and Naizian
Union Council No. 3 (Sihala): Sihala, Gagri, Mughal, Chak Kamidar, Nara Sayedan, Sandu, Chitroh, Herdogher, Jabi Gakhran, Ladhiot, Kangota, Sayedan, Jandala and Kangota Gujran.
Union Council No. 4 (Koral): Koral, Lohi Bher, Choocha, Rakh Lohi Bher, Pagh, Panwal, Bora Bangial, Bukher, Khathreel, Dhaliala, Pind Dia, Paija, Darwala, Sher Dhamial, Pindi Malkan, Pindori Hathial, Pindori Sayedan, Bhimber Trar, Gohra Mast, Sigga, Channi Mahsu and Khan.
Union Council No. 5 (Khana): Khana Dak, Gangal, Gandhian, Tarlai Khurd and Sodhar.
Union Council No. 6 (Tarlai Kalan): Tarlai Kalan, Chaper Mir-Khanal, Tramri, Tamma, Gohra Sardar, Chatha Bakhtawar and Khardapur.
Union Council No. 7 (Kirpa): Kirpa, Jhang Sayedan, Partal, Saknal, Panjgran, Frash and Ali Pur.
Union Council No. 8 (Cherah): Cherah, Herno Thanda Pani and Ara.
Union Council No. 9 (Tumair): Tumair, Kijnah, Sihali, New Simbli, Jandala, Jandgran, Garathian, Darkalai, Rakh Tumair A, Rakh Tumair B, Dakhian and Pind Begwal.
Union Council No. 10 (Phulgran): Phulgran, Shahpur, Sakrila, Dohala, Bbbri Betha, Athal, Maira Begwal, Chattar, Karlot, Hotran, Kathar, Mangal, Chaniari, Rakh Maira A & B and Malot.
Union Council No. 11 (Bhara Kau): Kot Hathial.
Union Council No.12 (Malpur); Malpur, Shahdara (Malpur Rural), Jhang Bangial, Mandla, Subban, Mangial, Quaid-e-Azam University and Muslim Colony.
Union Council No 13 (Noorpur Shahan): Noor Pur Shahan, Ratta Hoter, Talhar, Gokina and Saidpur.
Union Council No. 14 (Kuri at Chak Shehzad): Kuri, Rehara, Chak Shahzad, Majuhan, Mohrian, Gohra Baz, Mohra Jijan, Jagiot and Nogazi.
Union Council No. 15 (Rawal Town): Mohra Noor, Rawal Tonw, Rawal Colony, Mochi Mohra, Sumbal Korak (Katchi Abadi) and Sumbal Korak.
Union Council No. 16 (Sohan): Sohan, Kana Kak, Jaba Taili, Shakrial, Pindori, Sihana, Lakhwal, Chak Bera Sing, Kartal, Bohan, Dhoke Sharaf, Ojri Kalan & Khurd and Poona Faqiran.
Union Council No. 17 (Golra): Golra, Maira Bairi, Baker Akku, Dharek Mori, Maira Sumbal Aku, Maira Sumbal Jafer, Dharmian (F-11), E-10 (Sihala), Badia Rustam and Khan.
Union Council No. 18 (Shah Allah Ditta): Shah Allah Ditta, Seri Seral, Pind Sangral, Sara-e-Kharbooza, Johd, Siray Madhu, Bara Dari, Bakhar Fateh and Bakhsh.
Union Council No. 19 (Jhangi Sayeda): Jhangi Sayedan, Nothia, Thala Sayedan and Chailo, Sheikhpur, Kak, Noon, Narala and Bokra.
Union Council No. 20 (Tarnol): Bhadana Kalan, Tarnol, Pindi Parian, Naugazi, Dorey, Ahi Paswal, Sangjani and Bhadana Khurd.

The city is situated at the edge of the Pothohar plateau, south of the Margalla hills. The modern capital Islamabad and the ancient Gakhar city of Rawalpindi stand side by side, displaying the country's past and present. The area's micro-climate is regulated by three man-made lakes (Rawal, Simli and Khanpur). The city overall has an extreme climate with hot summers with monsoon rains occurring during July and August, and fairly cold winters with sparse snowfall over the hills and sleet in the city. The weather ranges from a minimum of -4 °C in January to a maximum of 45 °C in June.
The modern city of Islamabad was envisaged as the new capital of Pakistan in the 1960s. In the mid 1960's the capital was shifted from Karachi to Islamabad, with most of the Government machinery shifting to Islamabad, along with the foreign embassies, though off-shoots of some of these remain even today in Karachi. The city was built as a planned city and has been divided into various sectors on a "grid" whereby on one axis run the numbers and the other axis sees the city in alphabets.

Geography and climate
Islamabad is rich in natural animal wildlife ranging from wild boars to leopards that dwell in the Margala Hills. Islamabad also has a sizeable population of feral dogs and cats.

Islamabad, Pakistan Flora and Fauna
Islamabad is a relatively young city compared to the other cities. However, the views from the sculpted gardens of Islamabad's Shakar Parian Hills, National Monument, the fascinating Heritage Museum, and the huge marble Shah Faisal Mosque are the major highlights of the city. To the west of Islamabad is the town of Taxila, dating from 500 BC with heavy Buddhist and Sikh (home to a shrine, among the most important in the Sikh faith) influences. Sculptures here show a strong Greek influence, a result of Alexander the Great's journey through the region. The commercial center of Islamabad is known as the Blue Area and runs along the length of Jinnah Avenue. Its eastern end runs into Parliament Road, where the majority of the country's government buildings are located.
The city is very green, with much afforestation of what was formerly scrub forest and open ground. The city's pleasant climate has enabled the introduction of many exotic plants to the area. There is also much wildlife in the north in the Margalla hills, which have been turned into a national park. The Margalla hills are home to various species of wild life including a variety of exotic birds and carnivores such as the rare and presently endangered Margalla leopards.
Islamabad's architecture walks a tight-rope between modernity and tradition. The Saudi-Pak Tower is a good example of the combination of modern and traditional styles into one building. The city is also home to the Faisal Mosque, which is well-known for its architecture and immense size. Quaid-i-Azam University is also located in the capital city along with numerous government buildings and foreign embassies such as the National Assembly building, the Supreme Court building, the President's official residence (Aiwan-e-Sadr) and the Prime Minister's secretariat. Another landmark is a giant silver-colored Globe statue, installed in 2004 to mark Pakistan's hosting of that year's SAARC Summit. Recently, Atkins UK have designed a striking building for the capital, the Centaurus, reflecting the margalla hills surrounding it. Not only will this be the tallest and most impressive structure in Islamabad, second only to proposed taller skyscrapers in Karachi and Lahore, but will also truly put Pakistan's beautiful capital city on the global architectural map.


  • National Monument Islamabad
    Murree Hills
    Margalla Hills
    Shakar Parrian
    Islamabad Zoo
    Rawal Lake
    Simli dam lake
    Khanpur dam lake
    Anchorage, Islamabad

    • Pakistan Museum of Natural History
      Islamabad Museum
      Lok Virsa Museum
      Pakistan Army Museum(Rawalpindi)
      Museum of Pakistan
      Taxila Museum
      Mosques and Shrines

      • Shah Faisal Mosque
        Golra Sharif
        Lal Masjid
        Bari Imaam
        Panja Sahib (Hasan Abdal)
        Government Buildings

        • Supreme Court of Pakistan
          National Parliament of Pakistan
          President's official residence (Aiwan-e-Sadr)
          Prime Minister's Secretariat
          National Institute of Health (NIH)

          • Fatima Jinnah Park
            Rose and Jasmine Garden
            Japanese Park
            Chattar Bagh
            Auyb National Park, Rawalpindi
            Shakar Padiyan
            Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission Headquarter
            Main Markets

            • Jinnah Super Market
              Karachi Company/G-9 Markaz
              Super Market
              Sitara Market
              Blue Area
              Peshawar Moore
              G-10 Markaz
              G-11 Markaz
              F-8 Markaz
              F-10 Markaz
              F-11 Markaz
              G-8 Markaz
              I-8 Markaz
              I-9 Markaz
              I-10 Markaz
              I-11 Markaz

              • Marriott Hotel
                Holiday Inn Hotel
                Serena Hotel
                Pearl Continental Hotel
                Centaurus Hotel (Under construction)
                Grand Hyatt(Underconstruction)(2009)
                Le Meridian(2009)
                Best Western Hotel
                Avari Hotels Islamabad(2008)
                Sporting facilities

                • Jinnah Sports Complex
                  Liaquat Gymnasium
                  Para Gliding at Margalla hills
                  Margalla cricket Ground
                  Rawalpindi cricket stadium
                  Islamabad club golf course
                  Yachting facility at Rawal lake
                  Islamabad club tennis courts
                  Mushaf Squash Complex - The Mushaf Squash Complex is a state of the art facility which boasts to be the best squash-playing arena in Asia. It was inaugurated on June 29, 2004 by Kaleem Saadat, President of the Pakistan Squash Federation. It comprises a four-sided glass wall court and 4 Combi courts, imported from Messers ASB Courts, Germany. These courts are convertible into Doubles Court. The complex has a seating capacity of 800+ people and is fitted with one of the best air conditioning systems in the country. Tourism and sightseeing
                  Punjabis account for 65% of the population followed by the Muhajir Urdu at around 10%, Pashtun at 10% and others (Sindhi, Balochi, Kashmiri's, etc) at 15%. [2]

                  East: Kotli Sattian/Muree North East: Muree / Kahuta North West: Taxila / Wah Cantt / Attock District South East: Gujar Khan / Kallar Syedian / Rawat / Mandra South West: Rawalpindi West: NWFP
                  The Capital Development Authority (CDA) has intended to carry out a feasibility and reference design for a rapid mass transit system for the twin-cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. On April 5, 2007, Federal Minister for Railways Sheikh Rashid Ahmed said that a railway station would be built near the planned Islamabad Airport at Fateh Jang to facilitate passengers.

                  Islamabad is divided into several different sectors, each identified by a letter of the Roman alphabet and a number, with each sector covering an area of approximately 2 km x 2 km. Each sector is further divided into 4 sub-sectors. The sectors currently in use are lettered from D to I.
                  Currently, there is only one D sector, D-12. Although this sector is underdeveloped with its development to be completed in 2008, it will be considered as one of the most beautiful sectors of Islamabad because of its location near the Margalla Hills. However, in the revised Master Plan, CDA has decided to develop new sectors including D-13 and D-14.
                  The E sectors are numbered from E-6 to E-18. Many foreigners and diplomatic personnel are housed in this sector. But with new revised Master Plan, CDA has decided to develop a park on the patterns of F-9 park in sector E-14. Sector E-8 and E-9 contain the campuses of three Defense universities Bahria University (Sector E-8), Air University (Sector E-9) and National Defence College (now National Defence University).
                  The F sectors are numbered F-5 through F-12. F-5 is an important sector for the software industry in Islamabad, as both of the two software technology parks are located here. The entire sector of F-9 is dedicated for the Fatima Jinnah Park. The Centaurus complex (including a 7 star plaza, 5 star hotel and apartments) will be one of the major landmarks of F-8.
                  The G sectors are numbered G-5 through G-16. Some important landmarks include the Convention Center, SS-CARE and Serena Hotel in G-5, the Lal Mosque in G-6, the Karachi Company shopping center in G-9 (named after a construction company from Karachi who made one of the first flats in this area in and around 1978) and the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) hospital in G-8 which is the largest medical complex in the capital and is hence also known by the locals as simply the 'Complex Hospital.' The Institute is a national centre of excellence and tertiary referral centre. With its own helipad it was the focal point of rescue missions and the point of referral for the most seriously wounded in the Northern Areas earthquake of 2005. The H sectors are numbered H-7 through H-12. The H sectors are mostly dedicated to educational and health institutions. Shifa International Hospitals Ltd. and the Shifa College of Medicine are situated in sector H-8/4. Sectors H-8, H-9, H-10 and H-11 contain the campuses of a number of top universities and Institutes of the country, including Institute of Cost & Management Accountants of Pakistan[3], COMSATS Institute of Information Technology[4], Allama Iqbal Open University, The Roots School System (, City School, and Beacon House School in sector H-8; the National University of Modern Languages (NUML) and International School of Islamabad in sector H-9; the International Islamic University in sector H-10; the National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences (FAST-NUCES) in sector H-10; and the National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) in H-12.
                  The I sectors are numbered I-8 through I-18. Except for I-8, these sectors are primarily set aside as part of the industrial zone. Only Two sub-sectors of Sector I-9 and one sub-sector of sector I-10 is used as Industrial Area. Sector I-11 is proposed site of a state-of-art Vegetable and Fruit Market. CDA has planned to relocate the operating Veg. and Fruit market from I-11 to Sangjani. Sector I-15 is a new sector for Low-income group. CDA is planning to set up Islamabad Railway Station in Sector I-18 and Industrial City in proposed sector I-17.

                  Sister Cities