Tuesday, September 18, 2007

The term Artificial Intelligence (AI) was first used by John McCarthy who used it to mean "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines". The terms strong and weak AI can be used to narrow the definition for classifying such systems. AI is studied in overlapping fields of computer science, psychology, philosophy, neuroscience, and engineering, dealing with intelligent behavior, learning, and adaptation and usually developed using customized machines or computers.
Research in AI is concerned with producing machines to automate tasks requiring intelligent behavior. Examples include control, planning and scheduling, the ability to answer diagnostic and consumer questions, handwriting, natural language, speech, and facial recognition. As such, the study of AI has also become an engineering discipline, focused on providing solutions to real life problems, knowledge mining, software applications, and strategy games like computer chess and other video games. One of the biggest difficulties with AI is that of "comprehension". Many devices have been created that can do amazing things, but critics of AI claim that no actual comprehension by the AI machine has taken place.

Generally speaking AI systems are built around automated inference engines including forward reasoning and backwards reasoning. Based on certain conditions ("if") the system infers certain consequences ("then"). AI applications are generally divided into two types, in terms of consequences: classifiers ("if shiny then diamond") and controllers ("if shiny then pick up"). Controllers do however also classify conditions before inferring actions, and therefore classification forms a central part of most AI systems.
Classifiers make use of pattern recognition for condition matching. In many cases this does not imply absolute, but rather the closest match. Techniques to achieve this divide roughly into two schools of thought: Conventional AI and Computational intelligence (CI).
Conventional AI research focuses on attempts to mimic human intelligence through symbol manipulation and symbolically structured knowledge bases. This approach limits the situations to which conventional AI can be applied. Lotfi Zadeh stated that "we are also in possession of computational tools which are far more effective in the conception and design of intelligent systems than the predicate-logic-based methods which form the core of traditional AI." These techniques, which include fuzzy logic, have become known as soft computing. These often biologically inspired methods stand in contrast to conventional AI and compensate for the shortcomings of symbolicism.

Classifiers are functions that can be tuned according to examples, making them very attractive for use in AI. These examples are known as observations or patterns. In supervised learning, each pattern belongs to a certain predefined class. A class can be seen as a decision that has to be made. All the observations combined with their class labels are known as a data set.
When a new observation is received, that observation is classified based on previous experience. A classifier can be trained in various ways; there are mainly statistical and machine learning approaches.
A wide range of classifiers are available, each with its strengths and weaknesses. Classifier performance depends greatly on the characteristics of the data to be classified. There is no single classifier that works best on all given problems; this is also referred to as the "no free lunch" theorem. Various empirical tests have been performed to compare classifier performance and to find the characteristics of data that determine classifier performance. Determining a suitable classifier for a given problem is however still more an art than science.
The most widely used classifiers are the neural network, support vector machine, k-nearest neighbor algorithm, Gaussian mixture model, naive Bayes classifier, and decision tree.

Conventional AI mostly involves methods now classified as machine learning, characterized by formalism and statistical analysis. This is also known as symbolic AI, logical AI, neat AI and Good Old Fashioned Artificial Intelligence (GOFAI). (Also see semantics.) Methods include:

Expert systems: apply reasoning capabilities to reach a conclusion. An expert system can process large amounts of known information and provide conclusions based on them.
Case based reasoning: stores a set of problems and answers in an organized data structure called cases. A case based reasoning system upon being presented with a problem finds a case in its knowledge base that is most closely related to the new problem and presents its solutions as an output with suitable modifications.
Bayesian networks
Behavior based AI: a modular method of building AI systems by hand. Conventional AI
Computational intelligence involves iterative development or learning (e.g., parameter tuning in connectionist systems). Learning is based on empirical data and is associated with non-symbolic AI, scruffy AI and soft computing. Subjects in computational intelligence as defined by IEEE Computational Intelligence Society mainly include:
With hybrid intelligent systems, attempts are made to combine these two groups. Expert inference rules can be generated through neural network or production rules from statistical learning such as in ACT-R or CLARION (see References below). It is thought that the human brain uses multiple techniques to both formulate and cross-check results. Thus, systems integration is seen as promising and perhaps necessary for true AI, especially the integration of symbolic and connectionist models (e.g., as advocated by Ron Sun).

Neural networks: trainable systems with very strong pattern recognition capabilities.
Fuzzy systems: techniques for reasoning under uncertainty, have been widely used in modern industrial and consumer product control systems; capable of working with concepts such as 'hot', 'cold', 'warm' and 'boiling'.
Evolutionary computation: applies biologically inspired concepts such as populations, mutation and survival of the fittest to generate increasingly better solutions to the problem. These methods most notably divide into evolutionary algorithms (e.g., genetic algorithms) and swarm intelligence (e.g., ant algorithms). Computational intelligence
AI research has led to many advances in programming languages including the first list processing language by Allen Newell et al., Lisp dialects, Planner, Actors, the Scientific Community Metaphor, production systems, and rule-based languages.
GOFAI TEST research is often done in programming languages such as Prolog or Lisp. Matlab and Lush (a numerical dialect of Lisp) include many specialist probabilistic libraries for Bayesian systems. AI research often emphasises rapid development and prototyping, using such interpreted languages to empower rapid command-line testing and experimentation. Real-time systems are however likely to require dedicated optimized software.
Many expert systems are organized collections of if-then such statements, called productions. These can include stochastic elements, producing intrinsic variation, or rely on variation produced in response to a dynamic environment.

AI programming languages and styles
The 800 million-Euro EUREKA Prometheus Project on driverless cars (1987-1995) showed that fast autonomous vehicles, notably those of Ernst Dickmanns and his team, can drive long distances (over 100 miles) in traffic, automatically recognizing and tracking other cars through computer vision, passing slower cars in the left lane. But the challenge of safe door-to-door autonomous driving in arbitrary environments will require additional research.
The DARPA Grand Challenge was a race for a $2 million prize where cars had to drive themselves over a hundred miles of challenging desert terrain without any communication with humans, using GPS, computers and a sophisticated array of sensors. In 2005, the winning vehicles completed all 132 miles of the course in just under seven hours. This was the first in a series of challenges aimed at a congressional mandate stating that by 2015 one-third of the operational ground combat vehicles of the US Armed Forces should be unmanned.
In the post-dot-com boom era, some search engine websites use a simple form of AI to provide answers to questions entered by the visitor. Questions such as What is the tallest building? can be entered into the search engine's input form, and a list of answers will be returned.

Artificial intelligence Research challenges
AI is not only seen in computer science and engineering. It is studied and applied in various different sectors.

AI in other disciplines

Main article: Philosophy of artificial intelligence Philosophy

Main article: Cognitive science Computer Science
Banks use artificial intelligence systems to organize operations, invest in stocks, and manage properties. In August 2001, robots beat humans in a simulated financial trading competition (BBC News, 2001).


Main article: Artificial intelligence in fiction Fiction
The 1990s saw some of the first attempts to massproduce domestically aimed-types of basic Artificial Intelligence for education, or leisure. This prospered greatly with the Digital Revolution, and helped introduce people, especially children, to a life of dealing with various types of A.I, specifically in the form of Tamogatchis and Giga Pets, the Internet(ex. basic search engine interfaces are one simple form), and the first widely released robot, Furby. A mere year later an improved type of domestic robot was released in the form of Aibo, a robotic dog with intelligent features and autonomy.

Toys and games

Pattern recognition

  • Optical character recognition
    Handwriting recognition
    Speech recognition
    Face recognition
    Artificial Creativity
    Computer vision, Virtual reality and Image processing
    Diagnosis (artificial intelligence)
    Game theory and Strategic planning
    Game artificial intelligence and Computer game bot
    Natural language processing, Translation and Chatterbots
    Non-linear control and Robotics
    Artificial life
    Automated reasoning
    Biologically-inspired computing
    Concept mining
    Data mining
    Knowledge representation
    Semantic Web
    E-mail spam filtering

    • Behavior-based robotics
      Cognitive robotics
      Developmental robotics
      Epigenetic robotics
      Evolutionary robotics
      Hybrid intelligent system
      Intelligent agent
      Intelligent control
      List of AI researchers
      List of AI projects
      List of important AI publications See also

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